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Table 1 Effect of different ratio combination of Vitamin K3 (VK3) and vitamin C (VC) in Jurkat cells.

From: Vitamin K3 and vitamin C alone or in combination induced apoptosis in leukemia cells by a similar oxidative stress signalling mechanism

Treatment/Assay AO/EB (%) DiOC6(3)High/Low (%)
Untreated < 1 ± 0 > 99 ± 0
VK3 (1 μM) 1 ± 1 98 ± 1
VC (100 μM) 1 ± 0 99 ± 1
VK3 (1 μM) + VC (100 μM) 1 ± 1 98 ± 1
VK3 (2 μM) 1 ± 1 98 ± 1
VC (200 μM) 1 ± 1 98 ± 2
VK3 (2 μM) + VC (200 μM) 2 ± 1 97 ± 1
VK3 (3 μM) 5 ± 1a 96 ± 1
VC (300 μM) 4 ± 1a 97 ± 1
VK3 (3 μM) + VC (300 μM) 2 ± 1a 97 ± 2
VK3 (4 μM) 11 ± 1a 87 ± 3a
VC (400 μM) < 1 ± 0c > 99 ± 0c
VK3 (4 μM) + VC (400 μM) 8 ± 1a,b 92 ± 2a,b,c
VK3 (5 μM) 22 ± 1a 73 ± 2a
VC (500 μM) 2 ± 1c 97 ± 1c
VK3 (5 μM) + VC (500 μM) 10 ± 2a,b,c 88 ± 2a,c
VC (5000 μM) 3 ± 1 97 ± 2b,c
VK3 (5 μM) + VC (5000 μM) 48 ± 2a,b,c 68 ± 2a,b,c
VK3 (10 μM) 35 ± 3a 60 ± 2a
VC (10000 μM) 26 ± 2a 75 ± 3a,c
VK3 (10 μM) + VC (10000 μM) 58 ± 3a,b,c 63 ± 3a,b
  1. Jurkat cells (1 × 106 cell/mL) were left untreated or treated with VC or VK3 alone or in combination at the indicated concentration for 24 h. After this time, mitochondrial membrane potential and nuclear morphological changes were evaluated using DiOC6(3) and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, as described in Materials and Methods. High polarized and low-polarized mitochondria (green fluorescent DiOC6(3) high/low positive cells) and positive apoptotic nuclei percentage is expressed as mean of percentage (%) ± S.D. from three independent experiments. A one-way ANOVA analysis was performed, p < 0.0001. aSignificantly different from untreated by Bonferroni post-ho c analysis for DiOC6(3) and Games-Howell post hoc comparison for AO/EB. bSignificantly different from VC by Bonferroni post-ho c analysis for DiOC6(3) and Games-Howell post hoc comparison for AO/EB. cSignificantly different from VK3 by Bonferroni post-ho c analysis for DiOC6(3) and Games-Howell post hoc comparison for AO/EB.