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Table 3 NF-κB, p53, c-Jun and caspase-3 molecules are involved in vitamin K3 (VK3)- and vitamin C (VC)-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells.

From: Vitamin K3 and vitamin C alone or in combination induced apoptosis in leukemia cells by a similar oxidative stress signalling mechanism

Treatment/Assay AO/EB (%) DiOC6(3)High/Low (%)
Untreated < 1 ± 0 > 99 ± 0
VK3 (10 μM) 35 ± 3 63 ± 2
VC (10 mM) 26 ± 2 73 ± 3
VK3 (10 μM) + VC (10 mM) 58 ± 3 63 ± 3
PDTC (10 nM) < 1 ± 0 > 99 ± 0
PDTC (10 nM) + VK3 (10 μM) 3 ± 1a 97 ± 1a
PDTC (10 nM) + VC (10 mM) 8 ± 2b 90 ± 2b
PDTC (10 nM) + VK3 (10 μM) + VC (10 mM) 13 ± 2c 80 ± 3c
PFT (50 nM) < 1 ± 0 > 99 ± 0
PFT (50 nM) + VK3 (10 μM) 4 ± 1a 98 ± 1a
PFT (50 nM) + VC (10 mM) 3 ± 1b 95 ± 2b
PFT (50 nM) + VK3 (10 μM) + VC (10 mM) 6 ± 2c 92 ± 3c
SP600125 (1 μM) 2 ± 1 97 ± 2
SP600125 (1 μM) + VK3 (10 μM) 6 ± 2a 90 ± 3a
SP600125 (1 μM) + VC (10 mM) 8 ± 2b 89 ± 3b
SP600125 (1 μM) + VK3 (10 μM) + VC (10 mM) 20 ± 2c 80 ± 3c
NSCI (10 μM) < 1 ± 0 > 99 ± 0
NSCI (10 μM) + VK3 (10 μM) 3 ± 1a 95 ± 2a
NSCI (10 μM) + VC (10 mM) 8 ± 1b 95 ± 3b
NSCI (10 μM) + VK3 (10 μM) + VC (10 mM) 8 ± 1c 95 ± 3c
  1. Jurkat cells (1 × 106 cell/mL) were left untreated or treated with specific NF-κB, p53, c-Jun and caspase-3 inhibitors such as ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC, 10 nM), pifithrin-α (PFT, 50 nM), SP600125 (1 μM) and NSCI (10 μM) alone or in presence of VK3 (10 μM), VC (10 mM), VC (10 mM): VK3 (10 μM) at 37 °C for 24 h. After this time, nuclear morphologic and mitochondrial membrane potential changes as a result of NF-κB, p53, c-Jun, and caspase-3 activation were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and DiOC6(3) staining, as described in Materials and Methods. High polarized and low-polarized mitochondria (green fluorescent DiOC6(3) high/low positive cells) and positive apoptotic nuclei percentage is expressed as mean of percentage (%) ± S.D. from three independent experiments. A one-way ANOVA analysis was performed, p < 0.0001. aSignificantly different from VK3 by Bonferroni post-ho c analysis for DiOC6(3) and AO/EB. bSignificantly different from VC by Bonferroni post-ho c analysis for DiOC6(3) and AO/EB. cSignificantly different from VK3-VC by Bonferroni post-ho c analysis for DiOC6(3) and AO/EB.