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Table 1 TLS opposite DNA lesions by mammalian one and two-polymerase mechanisms

From: Translesion DNA synthesis in the context of cancer research

DNA lesion Insertion Extension Outcome
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site TLS Pol β/κ/θ/η/λ/μ/δ+PCNA same Pol Mutagenic [184, 185, 189, 62, 186, 191]
[187, 188, 190, 191]
  REV1 (Pol η; Pol δ/PCNA) Mutagenic [191]
  TLS Pol ι (Pol η; Pol δ/PCNA) Mutagenic [191]
7, 8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G) TLS Pol ι/κ/μ same Pol Accurate [197]/Mutagenic [196, 190]
  TLS Pol β/λ/η ND Mutagenic/Accurate (+PCNA and RPA) [198, 199]
Thymine glycol (Tg) TLS Pol κ TLS Pol ζ Accurate [201]
  TLS Pol ν same Pol Accurate (5S-Tg); Mutagenic (5R-Tg) [51]
  TLS Pol β/λ same Pol Mutagenic [200]
  TLS Pol θ ND Mutagenic [62]
[6-4]photoproduct ([6-4]PP) ND TLS Pol ζ Accurate? [205]
  TLS Pol ι TLS Pol θ Mutagenic [70, 205]
  TLS Pol η ND Mutagenic [51, 205]
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) TLS Pol η same Pol Accurate [51, 208, 209]
  TLS Pol μ TLS Pol ζ Accurate [190]
  TLS Pol ι TLS Pol ζ Mutagenic [160]
  TLS Pol κ TLS Pol ζ Mutagenic [160]
  ND TLS Pol ζ Mutagenic [160]
Benzo[α]pyrene-guanine (BP-G) TLS Pol κ/η/ND TLS Pol ζ Accurate/Mutagenic/Accurate? [64]
  TLS Pol κ/μ same Pol Mutagenic [190, 211]
Intrastrand-crosslink TLS Pol η same Pol; Pol ζ/REV1 Accurate [186, 213, 64, 105]
  Pol β/ζ/μ same Pol Mutagenic [122, 212, 64, 214, 215]
  TLS Pol κ TLS Pol ζ Mutagenic [64]
Interstrand-crosslink (ICL) Recombination-independent ICL repair including NER, REV1 and TLS Pol ζ Mutagenic [221]
  Recombination-dependent ICL repair including NER, REV1, TLS Pol ν and ζ Mutagenic [76, 104, 222]
  1. Abbreviations: One-polymerase mechanism (same Pol); not determined (ND). Note: TLS activity by a one-polymerase mechanism was in general determined by in vitro experiments. Therefore, it can not be excluded that the extension step in vivo is performed by another TLS polymerase, i.e. a two-polymerase mechanism.