Androgen control of LNCaP cell proliferation. (A): cells were treated with increasing concentrations of R1881 (1 pM-10 nM) or ethanol as the control vehicle. Proliferation was measured 4 days later by [3H]-thymidine incorporation with *P < 0.005 versus other concentrations and by cell number counting with **P < 0.05 versus other concentrations. (B): cell cycle was analysed by flowcytometry after treatment with R1881 at 1 pM, 0.1 nM, and 10 nM, with its ethanol vehicle as control (Ct) (0.001% was the highest concentration used), and with 300 μM Etoposide (positive control) and its DMSO diluent at 0.03%. A representative cell cycle profile is presented. (C) and (D): Cell cycle distribution analysis; the values are expressed as the mean ± SD determined from 2 independent experiments, with triplicate cultures per treatment condition. (C): percentage DNA fragmentation (S-G0), *P < 0.005 versus control and R1881 concentrations, **P < 0.005 versus DMSO. (D): percentage of cells in G0-G1 and in G2-M with *P < 0.005 and **P < 0.005 versus the other treatment conditions, respectively.