Curcumin induces the activation of apoptosis-related proteins and mRNA in GBC-SD cells. (A) After treatment with curcumin (0, 3.75, 7.5, and 15 μmol/L) for 48h, cell lysates were prepared and western blot analysis was performed against Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and PARP. β-Actin and β-tubulin were used as a loading control. (B) Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA. Curcumin upregulated mRNA expression of Bax, and downregulated mRNA expression of Bcl-2.