Schematic diagram of hypothesized mechanism of C
-ceramide-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells. C2-ceramide inhibits the activity of both Akt and NF-κB, causing the down-regulation of pro-survival survivin and cell cycle promoter cyclin A2. On the contrary, C2-ceramide increases the protein level of pro-apoptotic Bax. As a result, C2-creamide treatment causes cell cycle G1 arrest and chromatin condensation, subsequently, triggering the apoptosis of lung cancer cells.