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Table 3 The factors associated with activation of NF-κB transcription factor [37] and [42].

From: Rel/Nuclear factor-kappa B apoptosis pathways in human cervical cancer cells

• Cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6)
• Bacterial lipopolysaccharides
• Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)
• Cross-linking surface CD2, CD3, CD28 and T-cell receptors.
• Proteins secreted by viruses, for example, tax, X, E1A
• Viral infections, for example, HIV-1, Hepatitis B, HSV, HTLV-1
• Antigenic stimulants for the T and B-cells receptors
• Ultraviolet light exposure
• X-irradiation
• Nitric oxide
• Hydrogen peroxide and other oxidizing agents
• Calcium ionophores