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Table 2 Effect of vanadium and beta-Carotene on the number of single-strand breaks/DNA fragment in rat liver 18–20 h after a single injection of DEN

From: Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

Group Treatment Percentage of Double-strand DNA Number of single-strand breaks/DNA fragment Inhibition (%)
A Normal 93.56 0.07 ± 0.02a  
B DENA Control 31.68 1.32 ± 0.01 b  
C DENA+V 47.23 0.58 ± 0.01 c 56.06
D DENA+BC 52.87 0.54 ± 0.04 c 59.09
E DENA+V+BC 64.73 0.48 ± 0.023 d 63.6
  1. The mean values of the number of the single-strand breaks/DNA fragment for Vanadium control (group c) was 0.07 ± 0.01; for β-carotene control (group d), 0.08 ± 0.01 and the Vanadium and beta-carotene control (group e), 0.10 ± 0.01. No statistical significance could be observed between these drug controls when compared with normal vehicle control (Group A).
  2. aValues are means ± S.E of 5 rats (each rat liver genomic was tested in triplicate)
  3. bp < 0.01 as compared with group A,
  4. cp < 0.01 as compared with group B,
  5. dp < 0.005 as compared with group B.