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Table 2 Similarities between trophoblast maturation and tumor cell self-renewal

From: Stem cells, senescence, neosis and self-renewal in cancer

Properties Trophoblast Tumor cell
1. Subject to ageing and senescence Yes Yes
2. Polyploidization by endomitosis and endoreduplication Yes Yes
3. Polyploid giant cell undergoes neosis Yes Yes
4. Activation of telomerase Yes Yes
5. Multiple neotic offspring Yes Yes
6. Degradation and migration through extracellular matrix Yes Yes
7. Secretion of proteases degrades extracellular matrix Yes Yes
8. Invasive properties Yes Yes
9. Proteolysis of thrombin receptor Yes Yes
10. Stimulation of invasive properties Yes Yes
11. Evasion of immune rejection Yes Yes
12. Activation of protooncogenes Yes Yes
13. Growth control by tumor suppressor genes Yes. Under normal circumstances No – Lost during neoplastic transformation
14. MLS of Raju cells or their equivalent Limited MLS and perish at the end of pregnancy Limited. Can extend MLS via repetitive S/T-neosis.