A. Time Course: Degree of apoptosis in healthy peripheral mono-nucleated blood cells treated with 10 μM AMD5 for 48 hrs. Healthy human peripheral mono-nucleated blood cells were collected & treated for 48 hours with 10 μM AMD5. The cells were then stained with cell-permeable Hoechst 33342 dye to observe apoptotic nuclear morphology. Brightly stained and condensed nuclei were considered apoptotic, non-bright smooth nuclei were considered healthy. The degree of apoptosis was calculated by the number of apoptotic cells counted over the total number of cells visible displayed as a percentage. A minimum of 5 fields with at least 100 cells per field were counted and tabulated using Microsoft Excel software; values that are statistically significant to p < 0.05 are indicated with an asterisk. B. Nuclear Morphology: Healthy human peripheral mono-nucleated blood cells were collected & treated with 10 μM of AMD5 for 48 hrs. Cells were stained with cell permeable Hoechst 33342 dye to observe apoptotic nuclear morphology. Apoptotic nuclei are brightly stained and condensed when compared to healthy nuclei. The control was treated with DMSO solvent. Magnification: 200×.