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Table 1 Description and role of angiogenesis-related factors.

From: Comparison of angiogenesis-related factor expression in primary tumor cultures under normal and hypoxic growth conditions

Angiogenesis-Related Factor Role in Angiogenesis
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Permeability Factor
(VEGF/VPF)
Signalling protein for angiogenesis that works by binding, dimerizing, and phosphorylating external tyrosine kinase receptors. Can be induced by hypoxia through the release of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) [4, 6, 8, 10, 13].
Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor
(bFGF/FGF-2)
Stimulates production of basement membranes via formation of extracellular matrix. Aids in angiogenesis in tumors by mediating VEGF production [6, 11, 14].
Interleukin-8
(IL-8/CXCL8)
A chemokine that regulates angiogenesis by promoting survival of endothelial cells, stimulating matrix metalloproteinases, and increasing endothelial permeability [15, 16].
Epidermal Growth Factor
(EGF)
Factor commonly expressed in carcinomas involved in tumor growth, proliferation, and differentiation by stimulation of intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity, resulting in DNA synthesis. Also, induces VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF release by tumor cells [9, 19].
Fms-related Tyrosine Kinase
(Flt-3 Ligand)
Cytokine that assists in proliferation and maturation of hematopoietic progenitor cells [20].
Platelet-derived Growth Factors
(PDGF-AA, -AA/BB)
Mitogenic factors for fibroblasts, smooth muscle, and connective tissue that can be induced by VEGF and bFGF. Induce endothelial cell survival by recruiting stromal cells for VEGF production [9, 17].
Interferon-gamma-inducible Protein 10
(IP-10)
Inhibits tumor growth by regulating lymphocyte chemotaxis and inhibiting endothelial cell growth. Down-regulation correlated with poor prognosis. Reverse-correlated with VEGF [21].
Transforming Growth Factors
(TGF-β1,2,3)
Cytokines that control several biological processes including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Pathological conditions such as cancer are can be linked to modifications of these growth factors [18].