The plasma of NSCLC patients was endowed with stimulatory activity. (A) PBMCs derived from normal volunteers were cultured in the presence of 20% plasma derived from normal donors or from NSCLC patients before treatment, or control plasma (20% fetal bovine serum). Data points represented individual patients. *P < 0.001 (B) PBMCs derived from 16 normal volunteers or from 28 NSCLC patients were tested for the expression of the indicated cytokines using quantitative PCR. *P < 0.001. Each bar represented the means (±SD) from 16 normal volunteers or from 28 NSCLC patients.