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Table 2 Antiviral agents and some of their properties

From: Ribonucleic acid (RNA) biosynthesis in human cancer

Drug Description Used for
Purine and Pyrimidine analogues   
Atripla An antiretroviral contains non-nucleoside (efavirenz) and two nucleosides (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumerate) reverse transcriptase inhibitor. A fixed-dose regimen or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs (rifampin) for the treatment of HIV infection.
Azidothymidine: Combivir An anti-HIV drug containing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, containing zidovudine and lamivudine. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treatment of immunodeficiency for HIV infection.
Retrovir A nucleoside reverse transcriptase. In combination with other retroviral drugs to treat HIV infection.
Trizvir An antiretroviral, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In combination with other drugs for treatment of HIV infection.
Complera An antiretroviral contains non-nucleoside (rilpivirine) and two nucleosides (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumerate) reverse transcriptase inhibitor. A fixed-dose regimen or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV infection.
Cymevene An antiviral preparation which is a DNA polymerase inhibitor, containing ganciclovir. Cytomegalovirus-CMV in AIDS patients with reduced immunity.
Emtriva A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that contains emtricitabine. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV infection. It is similar to lamivudine and cross-resistance between the two is near similar.
Epivir A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, containing lamivudine. In addition to other antiretroviral drugs to control and treat HIV infection.
Harvoni A nucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitor that contains both ledipasvir and sofosbuvir. An antiviral drug to treat chronic Hepatitus C.
Herpid An antiviral preparation containing idoxuridine. Skin infections caused by Herpes zoster and Herpes simplex.
Hivid A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, containing zalcitabine. A combination therapy with antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV infection.
Lamivudine: Combivir A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that contains both lamivudine and zidovudine. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV infection.
Epivir A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV infection and disease.
Trizivir A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that contains both lamivudine and zidovudine. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV infection.
Zeffix A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Chronic Hepatitis B and evidence of viral replication in patients with liver disease, inflammation and fibrosis.
Rebetol An antiviral preparation that contains tribavirin. In combination with interferon (pegintron) for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C.
Stribild An antiretroviral tablet contains non-nucleoside (elvitegravir) integrase strand transfer inhibitor, mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (cobicistat) and two nucleosides (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumerate) reverse transcriptase inhibitor. A fixed-dose regimen for the treatment of HIV infection in adults who are antiretroviral treatment-naïve.
Videx A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that contains didanosine. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIVinfection.
Vira-A An antiviral medication that contains vidarabin. Ointment treatment caused by Herpes simplex. It is an alternative to acyclovir.
Viracept An antiviral protease inhibitor that contains nelfinavir. In addition to other antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV infection.
Viread An antiviral nucleotide analogue that contains tenofivir. In combination with other retroviral drugs for treating Hepatitis B and HIV infected patients with virological failure.
Virgan An antiviral eye gel preparation that contains ganciclovir. Acute inflammation of cornea, keratitis.
Viroptic An antiviral medication that contains trifluridine. Eye drops treatment caused by mild viral infection.
Zeffix A nucleoside analogue that contains lamivudine. Chronic Hepatitis B and evidence of viral replication in patients with liver disease, inflammation and fibrosis.
Zerit A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that contains stavudine. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV infection.
Zovirax An antiviral DNA polymerase inhibitor that contains acyclovir. Treatment and suppression of infections of skin and mucous membranes caused by Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster and varicella.
Other drugs   
Abacavir : Trizivir An antiretroviral,nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that contains abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV infection.
Ziagen A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treating HIV infection.
Amanatadine hydrochloride: A viral replication inhibitor. Treatment and prevention of influenza A.
Lysovir A dopaminergic, tricyclic amine preparation. Parkinsonism.
Symmetral
Dolutegravir An antiretroviral, integrase strand transfer inhibitor. Treatment of HIVinfection in conjunction with other antiretroviral drugs.
Foscavir A DNA polymerase inhibitor that acts in two stages to suppress the replication of cytomegalovirus; it contains foscarnet. Life-threatening infections of viral origin especially those of eyes in AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Also, infections of mucous membranes and skin caused by Herpes simplex and AIDS patients who have not responded to treatment with acyclovir.
Gamma globulin: A preparation of human normal immunoglobulin (5%). Immunoglobulin replacement therapy in patients who are immunodeficient, including, including various inherited disorders like hypogammaglobulinaemia (low levels of gammaglobulin in blood), agammaglobulinaemia (absence of gammaglobulin in blood). Also, thrombocytopenia purpera (bleeding disorder), and helping to prevent recurrent infection by HIV infection.
A preparation of human normal immunoglobulin (16%).
Flebogamma A preparation of human normal immunoglobulin, freeze-dried powder comprising 0.5 g, 2.5 g, 5.0 g and 10.0 g in bottles with diluents for reconstitution and injection.
Gammabulin A preparation of human normal immunoglobulin (5%). Antibody deficiency syndrome.
A freeze-dried preparation of human normal immunoglobulin. Guillain-Barre syndrome (a severe,often rapidly progressive syndrome of muscular weakness and paralysis, believed to be an autoimmune disease), Kawasaki syndrome (a disorder affecting lymph nodes), thrombocytopaenia purpera (a clotting disorder involving blood platelets).
Gammagard A preparation of human normal immunoglobulin, available as a solution and powder Replacement in various immunodeficiency states, including certain congenital conditions like thrombocytopaenia purpera. Also, prevention of recurring bacterial infections with HIV, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Kawasaki syndrome.
OctagamSandoglobulinVigam Replacement treatment in primary and secondary immunoglobulin deficiencies, prevention of bacterial infections in children born with AIDS, thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki disease, bone marrow transplants, Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Vigam Primary agammaglobulinaemia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, and other secondary secondary immunodeficiency disorders in children with AIDS,thrombocytopenia purpura,Kawasaki disease,bone marrow transplants and Guillain Barre syndrome
Interferons alfa: Introna A single-subtype recombinant preparation in powder. Neoplastic disorders (malignant conditions).
Roferon-A A preparation of interferon alfa-2a in a solution. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C (with or without tribavirin), neoplastic disorders.
Viraferon A preparation of interferon alfa-2b ina solution. Chronic Hepatitis B and chronic Hepatitis C infections.
Interferons beta: Betaferon A preparation acting on the immune system. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Rebif An immunimodulator of interferon beta-1a. Multiple sclerosis with relapses.
Interferons Gamma: Immukin A preparation of recombinant human interferon gamma- Ib. Additional treatment (with antibiotics) to lessen the incidence of serious infections acquired by patients with chronic granulomatous disease (any disese that gives rise to masses of granulation tissue, e.g.tuberculosis and leprosy).
Paclitaxel A taxoid antineoplastic agent and mitotic inhibitor that is based on plant alkaloid taxane or 11 (15- > 1) abeotaxane. Treatment of tumor cancers: breast, ovarian, lung, bladder, prostate, melanoma, esophageal and Kaposi sarcoma.
Rifadin An antibiotic and antimalarial preparation that contains rifampicin. Prevention of meningococcal meningitis, carriers of Haemophilus influenza, additional therapy for brucellosis, Legionnaire’s disease and serious staphylococcal infections, tuberculosis and mycobacterial infections, leprosy.
Triumeq An antiviral medication that contains a non-nucleoside integrase strand transfer inhibitor (dolutegravir), and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (abacavir and lamivudine). A single-pill regimen for treatment HIV infection.
Viramune A non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that contains nevirapine. In combination with other antiretroviral drugs for treatment HIV infection, progressive and/or advanced immunodeficiency.
  1. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause neoplasia. DNA viruses insert their nucleic acid directly into the genome of host cell and the virus replication normally ensues. Examples: Papilloma, Herpes simplex, Molluscum contagiosum,and Hepatitis B. RNA viruses require RNA-directed DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase), an enzyme that causes production of a DNA copy of the RNA viral genome. Retroviruses examples: human T lymphocyte virus type I- HTLV-I, acquired immune deficiency syndrome –AIDS, human immunodeficiency virus –HIV.
  2. Adopted from: Medicines & Prescription Drugs [102] New Lanark,ML: Geddes & Grosset; Pisano, D.J. and Mantus, D.S. (2008) FDA Regulatory Affairs: A Guide for Prescription Drugs, Medical Devices and Biologics, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.; Katzung, B.G., Masters, S.B. and Trevor, A.J. (2011) Basic & Clinical Phamacology, 12th edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical Division.