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Table 1 Historical application of XNT

From: Xanthorrhizol: a review of its pharmacological activities and anticancer properties

Pharmacoactivity Description References
Antimicrobial Antibacterial (Actinomyces viscosus, Porphyromona gingialis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium acnes), anticandidal (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis), antifungal (Malassezia species, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichophyton mentagrophtes) [15, 16, 19, 2225]
Anti-inflammatory In vitro reduced COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 levels; in vivo counteracted the effect of TPA-induced ODC, COX-2 and iNOS activation in mouse skin, and prevented IkBα degradation; blocked the neurogenic and inflammatory pain response in the formalin induced pain test in rats [10, 17, 26, 27]
Antioxidant Suppressed H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates, glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and ROS production; inhibited human LDL peroxidation [5, 17]
Antihyperglycemic Reduced the levels of insulin, glucose, FFA, TG in serum; reduced the size of epididymal fat pad and adipocyte; decreased the production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and CRP in adipose tissue, liver and muscle [6]
Antihypertensive Calcium antagonistic activity in rat uterus and thoracic aorta [21, 28]
Antiplatelet Inhibited platelet aggregation stimulated by arachidonic acid, collagen and ADP [29]
Nephroprotective and hepatoprotective Attenuated JNKs phosphorylation involved in MAPK signaling; inactivated NF-kB, AP-1; downregulated COX-2 and iNOS, reduced blood GPT and GOT levels [3032]
Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic Upregulated pS2 and promoted EREs in MCF-7 cells; acted as partial antagonist hERα in T47D cells [20, 33]
  1. COX-2 cyclooxygensae-2, iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6 interleukin-6, TPA 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, ODC ornithine decarboxylase, IkBα IkappaBalpha, H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide, ROS reactive oxygen species, LDL low-density lipoprotein, FFA free fatty acid, TG triglyceride, IL- interleukin-1ß, CRP C-reactive protein, ADP adenosine diphosphate, JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinase, MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-kB nuclear factor kappaB, AP-1 activator protein 1, GPT glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, GOT glutamate–oxaloacetate transaminase, pS2 trefoil factor 1, ERE estrogen responsive element, hERα human estrogen receptor-α