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Table 1 Short term growth inhibitory effects of alizarin, purpurin and aqueous extract

From: Targeted tumor therapy by Rubia tinctorum L.: analytical characterization of hydroxyanthraquinones and investigation of their selective cytotoxic, adhesion and migration modulator effects on melanoma cell lines (A2058 and HT168-M1)

Compound Conc. [M] Inhibition indexa (%) (control = 100 %)
A2058 HT168-M1 MRC-5
Alizarin 10−6 98.3 ± 1.52 98.3 ± 1.46 98.4 ± 1.62
10−5 103.8 ± 1.30 96.5 ± 1.61 104.6 ± 1.86
Purpurin 10−6 100.0 ± 1.45 100.8 ± 1.55 99.1 ± 1.12
10−5 90.6*** ± 1.09 87.0*** ± 1.79 103.16 ± 2.14
Aqueous extract 10−6 93.3* ± 0.86 101.9 ± 1.24 102.7 ± 1.52
10−5 84.5*** ± 1.06 116.1*** ± 1.39 100.3 ± 1.17
  1. Two different melanoma cell lines (A2058 and HT168-M1) and normal fibroblast cells (MRC-5) were applied as model cells and were incubated with the anthraquinones for 6 h
  2. The ‘Inhibition index’ is expressed as a percentage of the control. Data shown in the table represent mathematical averages of six parallels and ± S.D. values
  3. The level of significance is shown as follows: * p < 0.05; *** p < 0.001