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Table 1 General overview of the 22 TSGs that contribute to PTX-resistance

From: Tumor suppressor genes and their underlying interactions in paclitaxel resistance in cancer therapy

TSG abbreviation Full name of the TSGs Status Regulation manner Pathway associated with resistance Type of cancer
BRCA1 Breast cancer 1 Mutation [12, 17]
Protein/mRNA level [13, 14]
Spindle-assembly checkpoint [15]
Microtubule dynamic [16]
MEKK3 activity [17]
Apoptosis [13, 16]
JNK/SAPK and p38/MAPK pathway [17]
Ovarian cancer [13]
HNSCC [14]
Breast cancer [15, 17]
NSCLC [16]
TP53 Tumor protein p53 Mutation [26] G1 phase arrest [22]
Apoptosis [24]
Apoptosis [24] NSCLC [22]
Ovarian cancer [24, 26]
PTEN Phosphatase and tension homolog Protein level [34, 35] Cyclin B1 activity [34]
MiR-22 [35]
PI3 K/AKT pathway [34, 35] ESCC [34]
Colon cancer [35]
APC Adenomatous polyposis coli Mutation [38] MDR1 [38]
miR-135a [40]
Cell cycle [40], Cell adhesion [41] Breast cancer [38]
NSCLC [40]
p21/CDKN1A Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A Protein level [48] Cell cycle [48] Cell cycle, Apoptosis [48] Melanoma [48]
p16/CDKN2A Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A Protein level [49] Cell cycle [49] Cell cycle [49] Triple-negative breast cancer [49]
FRMD6/hEx FERM domain-containing protein 6 Protein level [8] Cell cycle [8] Cell cycle [8] Breast cancer [8]
RASSF1 Ras association domain-containing protein 1 Methylation [54] Cell growth [53] Cell cycle [53] Ovarian cancer [53]
YAP Yes-associated protein 1 deletion [55] Cell cycle [55] Cell cycle [55] Breast cancer [55]
ING4 Inhibitor of growth 4 Protein level [56] Bcl-2/Bax ratio [56] Apoptosis, Cell cycle [56] Lung cancer [51]
BAX BCL2-associated X protein mRNA level [57] Bcl-2/Bax ratio [57] Apoptosis [57] Breast cancer [57]
HIN-1/SCGB3A1 High in normal-1 Methylation [9] Apoptosis [9] PI3K/AKT pathway [9] Ovarian cancer [9]
PLK2 Polo-like kinase 2 Methylation [58] G2/M phase checkpoint [58] Cell cycle, apoptosis [58] Ovarian cancer [58]
LZTS1/FEZ1 Leucine zipper tumor suppressor 1 Protein/mRNA level [59, 60] Cell cycle [59, 60] Cell cycle [59, 60] Ovarian cancer [59]
Breast cancer [60]
FBXW7/FBW7 F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 Mutation [62] Ubiquitination [62] Ubiquitination [62] Ovarian cancer [62]
ZMYND10/BLU zinc finger MYND type containing 10 Methylation [63] Bcl-2/Bax ratio [63, 64] Apoptosis [63], PI3 K/Akt pathway [59, 64] Ovarian cancer [63, 64]
TGFBI Transforming growth factor-β-induced mRNA/protein level [66, 67] β3 integrin [66, 67] Apoptosis [66, 67] NSCLC [66]
Ovarian cancer [67]
REST RE-1 silencing transcription factor Protein level [70] TUBB3[70] PI3K/AKT pathway [70] Ovarian cancer [70]
FADD Fas-associated death domain protein Phosphorylation [72, 73] Apoptosis [71]
Cell cycle [72]
JNK/SAPK pathway [72] Cervical carcinoma [71, 73]
Prostate cancer [72]
PDCD4 Programmed cell death 4 Protein/mRNA level [74, 75] Mir-182 [74] Cell growth [74]
Cell cycle [75]
Ovarian cancer [74]
Cervical carcinoma [75]
ING1 Inhibitor of growth 1 Protein level [76] Apoptosis [76] p53-dependent pathway [76] Osteosarcoma [76]
PinX1 PIN2/TRF1 interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 Protein level [77] Spindle-assembly checkpoint [77] Cell cycle [77] Cervical carcinoma [77]