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Fig. 1 | Cancer Cell International

Fig. 1

From: Biomechanical cell regulatory networks as complex adaptive systems in relation to cancer

Fig. 1

The physical connection between the cell’s plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope via the actin cytoskeleton network, enables transduction of extra- and intracellular mechanical stimuli to reach the nucleus and to activate transcription factors which determine gene expression and subsequent cellular responses. Strains derived from extracellular matrix induce configurational changes in the focal adhesion protein talin, resulting in the recruitment of vinculin with the establishment of a physical link between the ECM and the nuclear membrane via the integrin/talin/vinculin—cytoskeleton—nuclear envelope proteins (Sun 1, Sun 2, Nesprins). Thus extracellular stresses, stiffness of ECM and the mechanical properties of the intracellular actin cytoskeleton influence cell shape and orientation and play a role in the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival [18, 19, 23]. The figure is adapted from Jaalouk and Lammerding [18] and Feller et al. [19]

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