Skip to main content

Table 3 Factors, genes or proteins involved in TKI resistance

From: Crosstalk between VEGFR and other receptor tyrosine kinases for TKI therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma

Resistance type Factors Genes Proteins
Intrinsic resistance High glucose uptake Tumour suppressor gene loss, polymorphism or mutation, such as VHL, TP53, PTEN, EGFR T790M and so on TP53, BIM, HIF, P-gp, MDR1, GSTs, MRP and so on
Acquired resistance Exosomes; lncRNA-SRLR and lncRNA-ARSR; miRNA 451, 221, 30a and so on [90]; EMT Crosstalk, bypass and downstream signal activation or amplification (such as PI3K/AKT pathway) IL-8, VEGFR-3, KRAS, BRAF, PDGFR, EGFR, FGFR, c-MET, AXL and so on