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Table 4 Research advances of MALAT1 in cancers (↑ represents promote; ↓ represents inhibit)

From: Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in human cancers: a review and meta-analysis

Cancer type Expression effect Transition of cell phenotype of MALAT1 silencing Molecular mechanisms References
Breast cancer Up-regulated G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest; ↓ proliferation/migration/invasion MALAT1 influenced cells progression by miR-129-5p; MALAT1 functions as a ceRNA of cdc42 in inducing EMT by binding miR-1 competitively [13, 69]
Gallbladder cancer Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation and metastasis MALAT1 activates the ERK/MAPK pathway [70]
Colorectal cancer Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation/migration/invasion Knockdown of AKAP-9 blocks MALAT1-mediated proliferation, migration and invasion; MALAT1 might bind to SFPQ, therefore releasing PTBP2 from the SFPQ/PTBP2 complex; SFPQ regulated the effect of MALAT1 on cell proliferation and migration [79, 82]
Osteosarcoma Up-regulated ↓ Invasion/proliferation/metastasis MALAT1 knockdown inhabits PI3K/Akt pathways [62]
Lung cancer Up-regulated ↓ Migration/growth/invasion MALAT1 regulates by TDP-43; MALAT1 silencing reduces the expression of CXCL5; the promoter methylation regulates MALAT1 expression; MALAT1 up-regulated the expression of miR-204 target gene SLUG through competitively ‘sponging’ miR-204 [16, 78, 81]
Pancreatic cancer Up-regulated G2/M cell cycle arrest; ↑ apoptosis; ↓ proliferation/metastasis/migration/invasion MALAT1 promotes proliferation and metastasis by the stimulation of autophagy and inducing EMT [68, 83]
Cervical cancer Up-regulated ↓ Invasion/metastasis; ↑ apoptosis MALAT1 regulates EMT by up-regulating transcriptional factor Snail [46, 80]
Gastric cancer Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation/migration/invasion/metastasis MALAT1 regulates via increasing EGFL7 expression; MALAT1 regulates VE-cadherin/β-catenin complex, ERK/MMP and FAX/paxillin singling pathways involved in VM formation and angiogenesis; MALAT1 regulates miR-1297 to modulate HMGB2 [44, 64, 75]
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation/migration/invasion/metastasis; ↑ apoptosis; G2/M phase cell cycle arrest MALAT1 regulates the expression of β-catenin and Lin28 via Ezh2; Silencing of MALAT1 caused by miR-101 and miR-217; Knockdown of MALAT1 induces cell cycle arrest by activating the ATM-CHK2 pathway [26, 58, 76, 77]
Hepatocellular carcinoma Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation/invasion MALAT1 regulates ZEB1 expression by sponging miR-143-3p [14]
Renal cell carcinoma Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation/invasion; ↑ apoptosis Knockdown of MALAT1 significantly increases miR-205 expression in renal cancer cells; MALAT1 silencing elevated E-cadherin expression, whereas b-catenin expression reduced through Ezh2 to block EMT [33]
Mantle cell lymphoma Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation; ↑ apoptosis; S/G1 phase cell cycle arrest MALAT1 represses the expression of PRC2-dependent target genes by ineracting with EZH2 [48]
Prostate cancer Up-regulated ↓ Growth/invasion/migration; G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest MALAT1 increases oncogenic activities of EZH2 [73, 74]
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation/migration/invasion/growth and cell cycle progression; ↑ apoptosis MALAT1 acts as a ceRNA to regulate KRAS expression by sponging miR-217 [72]
Bladder cancer Up-regulated ↓ Migration and metastasis MALAT1 regulates TGF-b-induced EMT; MALAT1 promotes EMT by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway [17, 18]
Epithelial ovarian cancer Up-regulated ↓ Proliferation/invasion/metastasis; ↑ apoptosis MALAT1 induces EMT via PI3K/AKT pathway [71]
Glioma Down-regulated ↑ Proliferation/viability/progression MALAT1 suppresses miR-155 expression and activates FBXW7 function [52]