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Fig. 1 | Cancer Cell International

Fig. 1

From: CRISPR–Cas9 a boon or bane: the bumpy road ahead to cancer therapeutics

Fig. 1

Schematic of CRISPR–Cas9-mediated genome editing. The Streptococcus pyogenes derived CRISPR–Cas9 RNA-programmable DNA endonuclease is targeted to a DNA sequence via a single guide RNA (sgRNA) sequence, which base-pairs with a 20-nt DNA sequence upstream of the protospacer-associated motif (PAM), resulting in a 3-bp double-strand break (DSB) upstream of the NGG. The resulting DSBs are subsequently repaired either by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or by homology-directed repair (HDR). Repair via the error-prone NHEJ pathway, frequently leads to insertion or deletion mutations (Indels) that can lead to genome instability. Alternatively, in the presence of an exogenous donor DNA template, the DSB can be repaired via the error-free HDR pathway, which can engineer precise DNA modifications

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