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Fig. 1 | Cancer Cell International

Fig. 1

From: Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol sensitizes human pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through proteasome-mediated down-regulation of c-FLIPs

Fig. 1

The effects of VEDT on survival, apoptosis induction, and tumor tissues in mice. a Effect of VEDT dose response on survival at 72 h in panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPc-1, BxPc-3, MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, and SW1990) and a pair of immortalized HPNE containing vector alone (HPNE-V) or transformed with oncogenic KRAS (HPNE-KRAS). Points, means; bars, standard error (n = 3–5, *P < .001, #P < .05). b Effect of δ-tocotrienol (VEDT; 20 µM) on induction of apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL staining in HPDE6-C7 immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells and MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. Ethanol served as vehicle control. VEDT significantly induced apoptosis in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Columns, means; bars, standard deviation (n = 4, ***P < .001). c Growth inhibition of subcutaneous MiaPaCa-2 xenografts in NIH-III mice treated orally twice daily with 200 mg/kg VEDT. Olive oil served as vehicle control. Points, means; bars, standard deviation (n = 5, P < .007). d Effect of VEDT on apoptosis (TUNEL) and cleaved caspase 8 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded MiaPaCa-2 xenograft tumor tissues in mice. H&E, hematoxylin and eosin. VEDT significantly induced apoptosis (P < .05) compared with vehicle-treated mice (n = 5)

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