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Table 2 Vector systems

From: Effects of pericytes and colon cancer stem cells in the tumor microenvironment

Vectors Advantages Disadvantages
 Adenovirus ↑ Efficiency and vector titers
Insert capacity (max 8 Kb)
No integration
Short-term expression
 Adeno-associated virus ↑ Efficiency and vector titers
↓ Toxicity, no pathogenic
↓ Risk of mutagenesis
Remains predominantly episomal
Requires helper virus to replicate
Insert capacity (3-5 Kb)
 Retrovirus ↓ Immune response in host
Insert capacity (8 Kb)
Integrates into genome
↓ Vector titers
Incorpotates into dividing cells only
Restricted tropism
↑ Risk of insertional mutagenesis
 Lentivirus Uptake in dividing and not dividing cells
↑ Insert capacity (8 Kb)
Integrates into genome
Next generation is self-inactiving for safe
↓ Vector titers
Restricted tropism
Risk of insertional mutagenesis
 Liposomes Protect degradation by nucleasas
Dose-dependent toxicity
cationic polymers (PEI and PAMAM)
↓ Immune response in host
rapid clearance from the bloodstream
Toxic effects on the liver and the kidney in mice
↓ Circulation half-life (minute–hours)
 Nanoparticles Protect degradation by nucleasas
↑ Circulation half-life (synthetic polymers sustained release over a period of days to several weeks)
Dose-dependent toxicity
↑ Penetrability and solubility
enhanced drug stability and biocompatibility
facile synthesis and easy structural modification
targeted drug delivery (specify and inespecify)
Toxic effects depends on the size and biodistribution
 DNA nanostructures Protect degradation by nucleasas
Small size
↑ Precision and flexibility
Non-toxic DNA nanostructures with their powerful structural control
↑ Biodistribution, biocompatibility
Localization and mapping of nanorobots in the human body are difficult using conventional optical microscopy techniques
Effect desired require coordination collective nanorobots
  1. Cationic polymers that are frequently used for intracellular delivery are polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyamide amine dendrimers (PAMAM)