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Table 2 Cancer stem cell targeting in head and neck cancer

From: Cancer stem cells and oral cancer: insights into molecular mechanisms and therapeutic approaches

Therapeutic target Compound Mechanism Model References
Nanog Silencing Suppresses tumorigenic and CSCs-like abilities In vitro [226]
Grp78 Silencing Inhibits tumor growth and stem cell regulatory proteins i.e., slug and Oct-4 In vitro [225]
CD44 Silencing Decreases migration, EMT, and reduces the expression of snail, vimentin, N-cadherin and slug In vitro [232]
Inhibiting translation elongation SVC112 Increases the progression of cell-cycle slows and delay DNA repair following radiation. Improves colony and sphere formation In vitro [233]
Let-7d/CDC34 axis Niclosamide Induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase In vitro, in vivo [234]
5T4 MEDI0641 Decreases the CSC fraction, and tumor regression In vivo [235]
cMET/FZD8 PF-2341066 Decreases tumor initiation, sphere formation, and metastatic spread In vivo [236]
CD44v6 Anti-CD44v6 antibody BIWA-IRDye800CW and -Indium-111 Detection of tumor regions and invasive zones In vivo [237]
CD44 Radionuclide186Re-cmAb (U36) Dose-limiting myelotoxicity, reduction in tumor size Human [238]
ALDH1 Alda-89, Aldi-6 In combination with cisplatin improves apoptosis and decreases tumor growth In vitro, in vivo [239]
Porcupine (PORCN) (Wnt signaling) LGK974 High response in HNSCC with Notch loss of function mutation In vitro [240]
FGF BGJ398 Reduces ALDHhighCD44high, sensitization to cisplatin In vitro [241]
Bmi1/AP-1 PTC-209 Cisplatin plus PTC-209 potently eradicates Bmi1 + CSCs and suppresses progression of tumor In vitro [209]