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Table 1 Differentiating between normal cells of bone and giant cell tumor of bone on the basis of several factors responsible for their development

From: Role of cancer stem cells in the development of giant cell tumor of bone

Bone cells/ giant cell bone tumor Cancer stem cells (CSCs) mTOR/PI3K-AKT Signaling (CSC-Based) Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) MiRNAs gene expression (CSC-Based) Mutations References
Normal cells of bone (i) CSCs are not present
(ii) Stem cells are present as small population.
(iii) CSCs play no role in skeletal development in bone cells
(i) Plays regulatory role but no CSC-based signaling present.
(ii) Participates in bone cell metabolism
(iii) Plays role in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and survival
(i) Multipotent in nature.
(ii) Present in various adult tissues as well as bone
(iii) MSC markers express through sub-population of stromal cells
(i) Small noncoding, single-stranded RNA molecules present
(ii) miRNAs are important part of normal bone cells.
(iii) Normal gene expression in bone cells
No mutation occurs in normal bone cells [70, 72] [99, 102], [125, 129], [64, 67],
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) (i) Over-expression occurs.
(ii) Undifferentiated in nature
(iii) Play role in tumor initiation, proliferation and its maintenance
(i) Overexpression occurs in GCTB.
(ii) Helps in the conversion of CSCs to endothelial cells
(iii) Helps CSCs to maintain stem cell characteristics like; self -renewal, survival and cell proliferation
(i) Participates in activation and proliferation of giant cells in Bone tumor.
(ii)MSCs/GCTSCs differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes
(iii) Expression of MSC markers confirm the development of GCTSCs
(i) Mutations at insubstantial locations in the chromosomes where gene coding occurs for miRNAs in CSCs
(ii)Mediate giant cells and osteoclasts by regulating osteoclastogenesis.
(iii) Act as potential biomarkers to detect several types of cancers
Mutations occur in Giant cells, stem cells, normal cells of bone [75, 78] [111, 114], [126, 129], [141, 142]