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Table 1 Oncolytic viruses encoding reporter transgenes for various imaging modalities

From: Virotheranostics, a double-barreled viral gun pointed toward cancer; ready to shoot?

Visualization methods Reporter transgenes Oncolytic viruses encoding reporter transgenes Imaging modalities Ref.
Optical imaging Fluorescent proteins (e.g., GFP, eGFP) Newcastle disease virus, measles virus, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), adenovirus, vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68), and Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) Specially adapted CCD cameras to detect fluorescence [25, 29, 33]
Luciferase Parvoviruses, adenoviruses, HSV-1, vaccinia virus, measles virus, and VSV EM-CCD camera
Deep-tissue imaging Enzyme-mediated imaging (e.g., HSV-1-TK) Sindbis virus SPECT and PET scanner, and γ-scintigraphy [27, 29, 36]
Receptor-mediated imaging hSSRT2 Vaccinia virus PET scanner and γ- scintigraphy [25, 27, 34, 40]
D2R Adenovirus PET scanner
Transporter/Symporter-mediated imaging h-NET Vaccinia virus (GLV-1h99) SPECT and PET scanner, and γ-scintigraphy [42]
h-NIS Adenoviruses, measles, vesicular stomatitis, vaccinia virus (GLV-1h153), HSV, and Retrovirus SPECT and PET scanner, and γ-scintigraphy [25, 27, 44]
  1. CCD camera Charge-Coupled Device, EMCCD Camera Electron multiplying CCD camera, SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography, PET positron emission tomography