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Table 2 Summary of included studies for prognostic biomarkers

From: Clinical implication of prognostic and predictive biomarkers for castration-resistant prostate cancer: a systematic review

Article Year Biomarker Intervention Significant outcomes
Sieuwerts et al. [18] 2019 ARV Cabazitaxel Median OS: 7.7 months (95% CI 7.0–10.6)
Median OS (ARV7− vs ARV7+): 9 vs 3.7 months
Belderbos et al. [19] 2019 ARV Cabazitaxel Median OS: HR: 1.33, 95% CI 0.81–2.15, p = 0.25
Median OS (ARV7− vs ARV7+): 12.6 vs 12.3 months
Cattrini et al. [20] 2019 ARV ARAT Median OS: 4.7 months (95% CI 0.6–8.9)
Qu et al. [21] 2014 ARV TURP Time to CRPC: 9.0 months
Median follow-up: 25 months
Median CSS: 17 months
OS (ARV7− vs ARV7+): HR (95% CI), 2.247 (1.066–4.737) 0.033
Antonarakis et al. [22] 2017 ARV Abiraterone or enzalutamide Median follow-up (CTC−, CTC+/AR-V7− and CTC+/AR-V7+): 15.0, 21.7, and 14.6 months
Median OS (CTC−, CTC+/AR-V7− and CTC+/AR-V7+): HR (95% CI), 28.7 (28.4 to not reached, 29.5 months (18.4 to not reached), 11.2 months (8.3 to 17.1)
Median follow-up: 15.0, 21.7, and 14.6 months
Time to CRPC: 23.0, 20.5 and 14.0 months
Qu et al. [23] 2017 ARV Abiraterone or enzalutamide Median OS in abiraterone (ARV7− vs ARV7+): 35.6 vs 27.2 month
Median OS in enzalutamide (ARV7− vs ARV7+): 29.1 vs 13.8 months
Median TTF (abiraterone vs enzalutamide): 10.3 vs 3.7
Carles et al. [24] 2018 CTC Radium-223 Median OS: 16 months
Median OS (> 5CTC):16 months
Mean follow-up: 9 ± 6 months
De Kruihiff et al. [25] 2019 CTC Cabazitaxel Median PFS for CTC
< 5 CTC at baseline vs < 5 CTC after treatment: 8.7 months
≥ 5 CTC at baseline vs < 5 CTC after treatment: 6.4 months
< 5 CTC at baseline vs ≥ 5 CTC after treatment: 7.4 months
≥ 5 CTC at baseline vs ≥ CTC after treatment: 3.5 months
Median OS for CTC
< 5 CTC at baseline vs < 5 CTC after treatment: 19 months
≥ 5 CTC at baseline vs < 5 CTC after treatment: 12.8 months
< 5 CTC at baseline vs ≥ 5 CTC after treatment: 23 months
≥ 5 CTC at baseline vs ≥ CTC after treatment: 6.9 months
Bitting et al. [26] 2015 CTC Abiraterone, enzalutamide Median OS: 11.2 months
Median PFS: 4.4 months
Median OS (< 5 CTC vs > 5 CTC):16.6 vs 8.9 months
Median PFS (< 5 CTC vs > 5 CTC): 5.7 vs 3.7 months
Josefsson et al. [27] 2017 CTC ADT Median PFS (CTC+ vs CTC−): 8.5 months
Median follow-up: 11.1 months
  1. PFS progression free survival, OS overall survival, ADT Androgen deprivation therapy