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Table 3 Summary of included studies for predictive biomarkers

From: Clinical implication of prognostic and predictive biomarkers for castration-resistant prostate cancer: a systematic review

Article Year Biomarker Intervention Significant outcomes
Vaishampayan et al. [29] 2019 Bone biomarker Cabozantinib Median PFS: 4.1 months
Median OS: 11.2 months
Median change (BSAP) pre and post therapy: 21.3%
Median change in serum Ntx pre and post therapy: − 13%
Median change in urine Ntx pre and post therapy: − 41.7%
Dizdarevic et al. [32] 2018 Bone biomarker 223Ra-Dichloride Median follow-up: 266 days
ALP OS: 298 days
Median OS (Normal ALP vs elevated ALP): 401 vs 222 days
Median OS (ALP ≥ 30% reduction vs ALP non-responders): 363 vs 115 days
Median OS (ALP ≥ 10% reduction vs ALP non-responders): 256 vs 137 days
Naito et al. [31] 2019 Bone biomarker 223Ra-Dichloride Median OS: HR, 0.21; 95% CI 0.045–0.95
Miyoshi et al. [33] 2019 Bone biomarker Cabazitaxel Median OS: 16.2 months
Median BSI level: 4.4% (range 0.1–12.9%)
Median PSA level: 194.9 ng/ml (range 1.3–2611.0 ng/mL)
Time to CPRC: 9.5 months
Median ΔBSI: 23.5%
Lara et al. [30] 2018 Bone biomarker Docetaxel + prednisone + atrasentan Median OS (CICP: ≤ 6.8): 31.6 months
Median OS (BAP ≤ 90.9): 27.1 months
Hammerrich et al. [34] 2017 Bone biomarker ADT APV ≥ 5.42 U/l/y vs APV < 5.42 U/l/y: 24.7% vs 75.3%
Follow-up time (fast APV vs slow APV): 63.4 months
Anand et al. [35] 2016 Bone biomarker Enzalutamide Median OS: 83 weeks
C-index of aBSI: 0.72
ΔBSI: median = 0.05, IQR: [−] 0.28–1.43)
C-index of  % of PSA change and aBSI: 0.77
Median follow-up: 56 weeks
Onal et al. [36] 2019 NLR Abiraterone either pre- or post-chemotherapy Median follow-up: 24 months
Median OS: 20.8 months (IQR: 17.3–24.4 months)
Median OS (NLR < 3.1 vs ≥ 3.1): 10.5 vs 6.5 months
HR: 3.13; 95% CI 1.67–5.88; p <0.001
HR: 3.30; 95% CI 1.33–8.19; p = 0.01
NLR PFS: HR, 2.25; 95% CI 1.44–3.51; p < 0.001
Loubersac et al. [37] 2019 NLR Abiraterone + prednisone or prednisone Median OS (NLRlow vs NLRhigh): HR, 0.66; 95% CI 0.50–0.86, vs HR, 0.84; 95% CI 0.67–1.04 p = 0.002
Tatenuma et al. [38] 2018 NLR Docetaxel Median OS: 21.0 months
Median OS (NLR > 2.59 vs NLR < 2.59): 12.0 vs 31.6 months
Kumano et al. [39] 2019 NLR Enzalutamide Median OS (NLR): HR = 4.57; 95% CI 1.31–15.96; p = 0.01
Median OS (NLR > 14 vs < 14): 17.9 months vs 22.0 months
Lorente et al. [40] 2015 NLR cabazitaxel versus mitoxantrone Median OS: 14 months (95% CI 13.2–14.8)
BLNLR > 3 vs < 3 on PSA response: 40.1% vs 59.9%
Median follow-up: 12.8 months
Koo et al. [41] 2019 NLR   Median follow-up: 18.5 months
Median RFS:3.7 (2.3–8.3)
OS (NLR < 2.5 vs > 2.5): 23.5% vs 14.5%)
Miyoshi et al. [75] 2018 ERG ADT Median time to CRPC: 40.2 months
Median time to CRPC with PTP (high vs low):14.8 months vs 86.3 months
Ohtaka et al. [76] 2017 ERG ADT Median overall OS high PTP: Not reached
Median overall OS low PTP: 23.8 months
  1. PFS progression free survival, OS overall survival, ADT Androgen deprivation therapy