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Table 1 Characterization of EVs in bile, serum, cholangiocytes and CCA cells

From: The role of extracellular vesicles in cholangiocarcinoma

The source of EVs (TEM)/ (NTA) Biomarkers References
CCA bile Rounded, cup-shaped, double-membrane-bound vesicles, 50–750 nm in diameter TSG101, ALIX, CD9, HSP70.1 [42]
Spherical structures of vesicles,30–110 nm in diameter, the mode of exosomes sizes is 72.2 nm CD63, CD81 [99]
Spherical structures, the mode of EVs sizes is 84 nm, 30–110 nm in diameter, 3 × 1011 EVs/ml bile TSG101, CD63 [98]
CCA serum Round morphology, ~ 180 nm in diameter CD9, CD63, CD81 [104]
50–750 nm in diameter TSG101, ALIX, CD9, HSP70.1 [42]
KKU-M213
KKU-100
Crescent shaped membrane invagination, 40–100 nm in diameter Flotillin-1, TSG101, CD81, CD63 [64]
50–150 nm in diameter Flotillin-1, CD81, TSG101 [73]
KMBC Spherical structures of vesicles, a mean size of 137 ± 960 nm ALIX, CD9,
CD81
[61]
KKU-M213D5 40–100 nm in diameter ALIX, TSG101 [105]
RBE 30–120 nm in diameter ALIX, TSG101, CD63 [65]
HuCCA-1 50–150 nm in diameter Flotillin-1, CD81, TSG101 [73]
H69 50–150 nm in diameter Flotillin-1, CD81, TSG101 [73]
  1. CCA cell lines: KKU-M213, KKU-100, KKU-M213D5, KMBC, RBE and HuCCA-1. Normal human cholangiocyte cell line: H69
  2. TSG101 tumor susceptibility gene 101, TEM transmission electron microscopy, NTA nanoparticle tracking analysis