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Table 2 Results from experimental studies of melatonin application against bladder cancer

From: Melatonin and urological cancers: a new therapeutic approach

Melatonin dose or concentration Targets Effects Model Cell line Refs
10 mg/kg
1 mM
cytochrome c, NF-κB, COX-2, IKKβ Combination of melatonin and curcumin induced cell apoptosis
Melatonin exerted pro-apoptotic, anti-migration, and anti-proliferative functions
Melatonin synergized curcumin ability to suppress tumor growth
In vivo, in vitro 5637, UMUC3, T24 [67]
100 mg/kg ZNF746 , p-AKT/MMP-2/MMP-9 Inhibited cancer cell growth, invasion, and migration
Induced cell cycle arrest
Suppressed oxidative stress
In vivo, in vitro HT1376, HT1197, RT4, T24 [68]
10− 6 m Wnt, E-cadherin, N-cadherin Raf/MEK/ERK Combination of valproic acid and melatonin enhanced cytotoxicity by modulating cell death pathways In vitro UC3 [69]