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Table 3 A summary of current findings of melatonin for renal cancer treatment

From: Melatonin and urological cancers: a new therapeutic approach

Melatonin dose or concentration Targets Effects Model Cell line Refs
200 mg/kg
0.5, 1, 2 µmol/L
PGC1A, UCP1 Eliminated the abnormal lipid deposits
Repressed tumor progression
Induced autophagy
In vivo HK2, 786-O, A498, Caki‐1, ACHN [97]
0.5–2 mM MMP-9, JNK1/2, ERK1/2, MT1 Suppressed metastasis and invasion In vitro Caki-1, Achn [72]
0.1, 0.5, or 1 mM Bim, E2F1, Sp1, proteasome Induced apoptosis In vitro A549, HT29, Caki [75]
20 mg/kg
10 µM
HIF-1α Inhibits tumor growth and blocks tumor angiogenesis In vivo, in vitro RENCA [98]
1 mM CHOP Induced apoptosis In vitro HCT116, HT29, Caki [73]
1 mM PUMA Induced apoptosis In vitro Caki [74]
1 mM Mcl-1 Attenuated oxaliplatin-mediated apoptosis In vitro Caki [99]
20 mg Increased survival
Abrogated the negative influences of opioids on IL-2 immunotherapy cancer cells
Human [100]
40 mg Combination of immunotherapy with IL-2 plus melatonin increased survival time, and lymphocyte and eosinophil number Human [101]
10 mg In addition to anticancer effects, low doses of human lymphoblastoid
interferon and melatonin showed no toxicity in patients
Human [102]