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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) presenting associations between fold changes in the expression of CTTN, RhoA, ROCK, CLDN-1, CLDN-2, and CLDN-4 genes and axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) as a dependent pathological variable of primary non-metastatic BrCa-IDC (no distant metastasis) (n = 173)

From: Profiling the expression of pro-metastatic genes in association with the clinicopathological features of primary breast cancer

Expression levels of gene ALNM status
  Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI)
N Negative Positive P-value¥ Negative Positive Negative Positive
CTTN
 <2.31* 72 22 (30.6)a 50 (69.4) 0.282 1.00 0.77
(0.38–1.52)b
1.00 0.94
(0.46–1.92)c
 ≥2.31 77 28 (36.4) 49 (63.6)  
 <4.88** 85 29 (34.1) 56 (65.9) 0.504 1.00 1.06
(0.53–2.11)
1.00 1.28
(0.62–2.64)c
 ≥4.88 64 21 (32.8) 43 (67.2)  
RhoA
 <0.69* 86 26 (30.2) 60 (69.8) 0.182 1.00 0.70
(0.37–1.33)
1.00 0.74
(0.39–1.40)d
 ≥0.69 87 33 (37.9) 54 (62.1)  
 <0.73** 87 26 (29.9) 61 (70.1) 0.155 1.00 0.68
(0.36–1.28)
1.00 0.71
(0.37–1.35)d
 ≥0.73 86 33 (38.4) 53 (61.6)  
ROCK
 <0.83* 85 31 (36.5) 54 (63.5) 0.353 1.00 1.18
(0.63–2.23)
1.00 3.05
(1.01–9.18)e
 ≥0.83 86 28 (32.6) 58 (67.4)  
 <1.09** 104 39 (37.5) 65 (62.5) 0.195 1.00 1.41
(0.73–2.71)
1.00 2.18
(0.75–6.33)e
 ≥1.09 67 20 (29.9) 47 (70.1)  
CLDN-1
 <1.06 * 88 35 (39.8) 53 (60.2) 0.135 1.00 1.49
(0.79–2.81)
1.00 1.55
(0.82–2.95)f
 ≥1.06 85 26 (30.6) 59 (69.4)  
 <0.75** 37 15 (40.5) 22 (59.5) 0.284 1.00 1.33
(0.63–2.81)
1.00 1.35
(0.63–2.87)f
 ≥0.75 136 46 (33.8) 90 (66.2)  
CLDN-2
 <1.15* 45 12 (26.7) 33 (73.3) 0.273 1.00 0.57
(0.23–1.37)
1.00 0.54
(0.21–1.37)g
 ≥1.15 49 19 (38.8) 30 (61.2)  
 <1.12 ** 15 6 (40.0) 9 (60.0) 0.363 1.00 1.44
(0.46–4.48)
1.00 1.60
(0.48–5.35)g
 ≥1.12 79 25 (31.6) 54 (68.4)  
CLDN-4
 <0.85 * 85 29 (34.1) 56 (65.9) 0.503 1.00 0.95
(0.50–1.78)
1.00 0.99
(0.52–1.87)h
 ≥0.85 88 31 (35.2) 57 (64.8)  
 <0.67 ** 67 28 (38.8) 41 (61.2) 0.229 1.00 1.34
(0.70–2.54)
1.00 1.37
(0.72–2.62)h
 ≥0.67 106 34 (32.1) 72 (67.9)  
  1. The statistically significant finding is shown in italic fonts (P < 0.05)
  2. N number, OR odds ratio, CI confidence intervals, ALNM axillary lymph node metastasis, CTTN cortactin, RhoA ras homolog gene family member A, ROCK rho-associated kinase, CLDN claudin
  3. aData were expressed as number (%)
  4. bLogistic regression analysis was performed
  5. Adjusted for cEducation status (illiterate/middle school/diploma/bachelor and higher) and waist circumference (< 90 cm/90 ≤ cm); dAge at menarche (< 13 year/13 ≤ year) and waist circumference (< 90 cm/90 ≤ cm); eAge at first pregnancy (< 24 year/24 ≤ year) and body mass index (≤ 24.99 kg/m2/25–29.99 kg/m2/30 ≤ kg/m2); fEducation status (illiterate/middle school/diploma/bachelor and higher) and body mass index (≤ 24.99 kg/m2/25–29.99 kg/m2/30 ≤ kg/m2); gEducation status (illiterate/middle school/diploma/bachelor and higher) and number of pregnancy (0-1/2-3/≥ 4); hAge at menarche (< 13 year/13 ≤ year) and number of pregnancy (0-1/2-3/≥ 4)
  6. ¥Chi square test was performed
  7. * Fold changes in the expression of studied genes were categorized based on median values
  8. ** Fold changes in the expression of studied genes were categorized based on the cutoff identified by Youden’s index