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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) demonestrating associations between fold changes in the expression of CTTN, RhoA, ROCK, CLDN-1, CLDN-2, and CLDN-4 genes and histologic grades as a dependent histopathological variable of primary non-metastatic BrCa (no distant metastasis) (n = 176)

From: Profiling the expression of pro-metastatic genes in association with the clinicopathological features of primary breast cancer

Expression levels of gene Grade
    Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI)
N I II II P-value¥ I II III P for trend I II III P for trend
CTTN
 <2.31* 72 22 (30.6)a 42 (58.3) 8 (11.1) 0.027 1.00 3.03
(1.30–7.08)b
3.02
(0.939.82)
0.03 1.00 3.37
(1.35–8.38)c
3.69
(1.08–12.61)
0.020
 ≥2.31 77 10 (12.7) 58 (73.4) 11 (13.9)    
 <4.88** 86 26 (30.2) 50 (58.1) 10 (11.6) 0.007 1.00 4.33
(1.64–11.43)
3.90
(1.10–13.81)
0.016 1.00 5.08
(1.75–14.69)c
5.08
(1.32–19.44)
0.010
 ≥4.88 65 6 (9.2) 50 (76.9) 9 (13.8)    
RhoA
 <0.69* 86 22 (25.6) 55 (64.0) 9 (10.5) 0.238 1.00 1.77
(0.823.79)
2.27
(0.766.69)
0.107 1.00 1.81
(0.833.96)d
2.58
(0.867.76)
0.073
 ≥0.69 89 14 (15.7) 62 (69.7) 13 (14.6)    
 <0.73** 87 22 (25.3) 55 (63.2) 10 (11.5) 0.305 1.00 1.77
(0.823.79)
1.88
(0.645.51)
0.184 1.00 1.81
(0.833.96)d
2.14
(0.726.38)
0.131
 ≥0.73 88 14 (15.9) 62 (70.5) 12 (13.6)    
ROCK
 <0.83* 85 21 (24.7) 55 (64.7) 9 (10.6) 0.347 1.00 1.66
(0.773.58)
2.00
(0.665.99)
0.172 1.00 1.65
(0.763.58)e
1.90
(0.635.74)
0.202
 ≥0.83 87 14 (16.1) 61 (70.1) 12 (13.8)    
 <1.09** 105 28 (26.7) 67 (63.8) 10 (9.5) 0.025 1.00 2.92
(1.18–7.24)
4.40
(1.33–14.48)
0.011 1.00 2.86
(1.14–7.14)e
4.22
(1.26–14.07)
0.014
 ≥1.09 67 7 (10.4) 49 (73.1) 11 (16.4)    
CLDN-1
 <1.06 * 87 19 (21.8) 56 (64.4) 12 (13.8) 0.491 1.00 1.27
(0.602.69)
0.74
(0.242.25)
0.806 1.00 1.35
(0.632.89)f
0.78
(0.252.40)
0.891
 ≥1.06 89 17 (19.1) 64 (71.9) 8 (9.0)    
 <0.75** 38 7 (18.4) 25 (65.8) 6 (15.8) 0.614 1.00 0.91
(0.362.33)
0.56
(0.151.99)
0.420 1.00 0.96
(0.372.48)f
0.57
(0.162.04)
0.452
≥0.75 138 29 (21.0) 95 (68.8) 14 (10.1)    
CLDN-2
 <1.15* 47 13 (27.7) 29 (61.7) 5 (10.6) 0.434 1.00 1.90
(0.695.23)
1.95
(0.448.54)
0.275 1.00 2.56
(0.798.34)g
2.99
(0.5715.51)
0.143
 ≥1.15 48 8 (16.7) 34 (70.8) 6 (12.5)    
 <1.12** 16 6 (37.5) 8 (50.0) 2 (12.5) 0.241 1.00 2.75
(0.829.15)
1.80
(0.2910.90)
0.269 1.00 2.97
(0.8410.44)g
2.04
(0.3212.94)
0.243
 ≥1.12 79 15 (19.0) 55 (69.6) 9 (11.4)    
CLDN-4
 <0.85* 86 17 (19.8) 59 (68.6) 10 (11.6) 0.963 1.00 0.91
(0.431.92)
0.84
(0.332.89)
0.930 1.00 0.93
(0.432.01)h
1.04
(0.353.12)
0.980
 ≥0.85 90 19 (21.1) 60 (66.7) 11 (12.2)    
 <0.67** 68 14 (20.6) 47 (69.1) 7 (10.3) 0.866 1.00 0.97
(0.452.09)
1.27
(0.413.93)
0.740   0.98
(0.452.14)h
1.32
(0.424.12)
0.687
 ≥0.67 108 22 (20.4) 72 (66.7) 14 (13.0)     
  1. The statistically significant finding was shown in italics (P < 0.05)
  2. N number, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, CTTN cortactin, RhoA ras homolog gene family member A, ROCK rho-associated kinase, CLDN claudin
  3. aData were expressed as number (%)
  4. bLogistic regression analysis was performed
  5. Adjusted for cEducation status (illiterate/middle school/diploma/bachelor and higher) and waist circumference (< 90 cm/90 ≤ cm); dAge at menarche (< 13 year/13 ≤ year) and waist circumference (< 90 cm/90 ≤ cm); eAge at first pregnancy (< 24 year/24 ≤ year) and body mass index (≤ 24.99 kg/m2/25-29.99 kg/m2/30 ≤ kg/m2); f Education status (illiterate/middle school/diploma/bachelor and higher) and body mass index (≤ 24.99 kg/m2/25-29.99 kg/m2/30 ≤ kg/m2); gEducation status (illiterate/middle school/diploma/bachelor and higher) and number of pregnancy (0-1/2-3/≥ 4); hAge at menarche (< 13 year/13 ≤ year) and number of pregnancy (0-1/2-3/≥ 4).
  6. ¥Chi-square test was performed
  7. *Fold changes in the expression of studied genes were categorized based on median values
  8. **Fold changes in the expression of studied genes were categorized based on the cutoff identified by Youden’s index (ROC-based cutoff)