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Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of fold changes in the expression of CTTN, RhoA, ROCK, CLDN-1, CLDN-2, and CLDN-4 genes in association with molecular subtypes a of primary non-metastatic BrCa (no distant metastasis)  (N = 206)

From: Profiling the expression of pro-metastatic genes in association with the clinicopathological features of primary breast cancer

Molecular subtype   Luminal B vs. Luminal A HER2 rich vs. Luminal A Triple-negative vs. Luminal A Luminal A vs. Non-luminal A Luminal B vs. Non-luminal B HER2 rich vs. Non-HER2 rich Triple-negative vs. Non-triple negative
N 23/129 13/129 9/129 129/78 23/183 13/194 9/198
Gene Status of expression   Crude OR (95%CI) Adj. OR (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) Adj. OR (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) Adj. OR (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) Adj. OR (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) Adj. OR (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) Adj. OR (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) Adj. OR (95%CI)
CTTN
  High/Low* 87/87 0.73
(0.26–2.03)b
0.61
(0.20–1.78)c
0.58
(0.17–1.96)
0.61
(0.18–2.05)c
0.32
(0.06–1.76)
0.36
(0.06–1.95)c
1.75
(0.93–3.28)
1.96
(1.023.77)h
0.87
(0.32–2.39)
0.78
(0.28–2.21)c
0.69
(0.21–2.28)
0.74
(0.22–2.45)c
0.38
(0.07–2.04)
0.42
(0.08–2.27)c
  High/Low** 71/103 0.66
(0.22–1.91)
0.55
(0.18–1.69)c
0.86
(0.26–2.90)
0.92
(0.27–3.08)c
0.48
(0.09–2.61)
0.53
(0.10–2.90)c
1.68
(0.88–3.23)
1.79
(0.92–3.48)h
0.77
(0.27–2.19)
0.72
(0.25–2.09)c
1.03
(0.31–3.41)
1.08
(0.33–3.58)c
0.56
(0.10–3.01)
0.60
(0.11–3.21)c
RhoA
  High/Low* 102/103 1.29
(0.52–3.22)
1.25
(0.50–3.15)d
1.73
(0.53–5.58)
1.73
(0.53–5.58)d
2.16
(0.51–9.03)
2.19
(0.52–9.16)d
0.83
(0.47–1.46)
0.82
(0.46–1.47)d
1.24
(0.51–3.01)
1.24
(0.50–3.02)d
1.66
(0.52–5.28)
1.67
(0.52–5.29)d
2.08
(0.50–8.56)
2.09
(0.50–8.62)d
  High/Low** 101/104 1.08
(0.43–2.67)
1.03
(0.41–2.60)d
1.73
(0.53–5.58)
1.73
(0.53–5.58)d
2.16
(0.51–9.03)
2.19
(0.52–9.19)d
0.87
(0.49–1.54)
0.87
(0.49–1.56)d
1.03
(0.42–2.50)
1.03
(0.42–2.50)d
1.70
(0.53–5.39)
1.70
(0.53–5.41)d
2.12
(0.51–8.74)
2.13
(0.51–8.81)d
ROCK
  High/Low* 101/101 2.20
(0.82–5.90)
2.21
(0.81–5.99)e
1.02
(0.32–3.20)
1.19
(0.37–3.82)e
4.16
(0.83–20.82)
4.38
(0.86–22.25)e
0.62
(0.35–1.11)
0.59
(0.33–1.07)i
1.98
(0.75–5.20)
1.97
(0.74–5.22)f
0.84
(0.27–2.61)
0.78
(0.25–2.44)f
3.68
(0.74–18.19)
3.48
(0.70–17.26)f
  High/Low** 76/126 2.83
(1.077.43)
2.83
(1.077.45)e
1.17
(0.36–3.82)
1.25
(0.38–4.12)e
6.60
(1.3133.14)
6.71
(1.3333.82)e
0.71
(0.39–1.27)
0.66
(0.36–1.21)i
2.76
(1.077.11)
2.66
(1.026.95)f
1.03
(0.32–3.29)
0.91
(0.28–2.91)f
6.29
(1.2731.11)
5.68
(1.1428.22)f
CLDN-1
  High/Low* 103/103 0.91
(0.37–2.22)
0.93
(0.38–2.27)f
1.16
(0.37–3.66)
1.20
(0.38–3.80)f
1.00
(0.24–4.17)
1.02
(0.24–4.30)f
1.00
(0.56–1.75)
0.99
(0.56–1.75)g
0.90
(0.38–2.16)
0.90
(0.37–2.16)f
1.17
(0.38–3.63)
1.18
(0.38–3.66)f
1.00
(0.24–4.11)
1.00
(0.24–4.12)f
  High/Low** 158/48 0.61
(0.22–1.63)
0.61
(0.22–1.64)f
1.47
(0.30–7.03)
1.48
(0.30–7.13)f
0.44
(0.10–1.98)
0.44
(0.10–2.00)f
1.37
(0.71–2.65)
1.39
(0.71–2.70)g
0.66
(0.25–1.71)
0.64
(0.24–1.68)f
1.72
(0.36–8.04)
1.68
(0.35–7.92)f
0.49
(0.11–2.13)
0.47
(0.10–2.08)f
CLDN-2
  High/Low* 55/55 0.91
(0.27–3.12)
0.88
(0.26–3.03)g
0.36
(0.06–2.02)
0.34
(0.06–1.92)g
0.30
(0.03–3.08)
0.30
(0.03–3.05)g
1.27
(0.58–2.77)
1.30
(0.59–2.86)g
1.00
(0.30–3.31)
0.94
(0.28–3.14)g
0.37
(0.07–2.03)
0.36
(0.06–1.95)g
0.32
(0.03–3.18)
0.31
(0.03–3.17)g
  High/Low** 91/19 1.12
(0.21–5.73)
1.08
(0.21–5.62)g
1.34
(0.14–12.14)
1.28
(0.14–11.77)g
0.67
(0.06–6.99)
0.66
(0.06–6.92)g
0.81
(0.28–2.33)
0.81
(0.28–2.34)g
1.04
(0.21–5.22)g
0.89
(0.74–1.07)g
1.27
(0.14–11.20)
0.94
(0.77–1.13)g
0.61
(0.06–6.29)
0.61
(0.06–6.24)g
CLDN-4
  High/Low* 103/103 0.69
(0.28–1.68)
0.72
(0.29–1.76)g
1.79
(0.51–6.25)
1.83
(0.52–6.40)g
0.53
(0.12–2.34)
0.54
(0.12–2.37)g
1.33
(0.75–2.35)
1.37
(0.77–2.42)g
0.74
(0.31–1.78)
0.77
(0.32–1.86)g
2.08
(0.60–7.15)
2.14
(0.62–7.36)g
0.58
(0.13–2.52)
0.35
(0.08–1.50)
  High/Low** 128/78 0.56
(0.23–1.38)
0.57
(0.23–1.42)g
2.58
(0.54–12.33)
2.65
(0.55–12.64)g
0.31
(0.07–1.36)
0.32
(0.07–1.41)g
1.52
(0.85–2.72)
1.54
(0.86–2.75)g
0.63
(0.26–1.50)
0.63
(0.26–1.52)g
3.22
(0.68–15.10)
3.24
(0.69–15.24)g
0.60
(0.14–2.61)g
0.35
(0.08–1.52)g
  1. The statistically significant finding is shown in italics (P < 0.05)
  2. N number, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Adj adjusted, CTTN  cortactin, RhoA ras homolog gene family member A, ROCK rho-associated kinase, CLDN claudin, ER estrogen receptor, PR progesterone, HER2 human epidermal growth factor 2
  3. aMolecular subtype: luminal A (ER ± , PR ± , and HER2-), luminal B (ER ± , PR ± , and HER2 +), HER2 rich (ER-, PR-, and HER2 +) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-) [45, 47]
  4. bLogistic regression analysis was performed
  5. Adjusted for cWaist circumference (< 90 cm/90 ≤ cm); dBody mass index (≤ 24.99 kg/m2/25-29.99 kg/m2/30 ≤ kg/m2); e Residence (city/rural); fAge at first pregnancy (< 24 year/24 ≤ year); gNumber of pregnancy (0-1/2-3/≥ 4); h Waist circumference (< 90 cm/90 ≤ cm) and the age at first pregnancy (< 24 year/24 ≤ year); iAge at menarche (< 13 year/13 ≤ year)
  6. *Fold changes in the expression of studied genes were categorized based on median value
  7. **Fold changes in the expression of studied genes were categorized based on the cutoff identified by Youden’s index (ROC-based cutoff)