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Table 1 Active chemicals identified from the four major component of Pien Tze Huang (PZH). Their putative biological functions and respective references are also listed

From: Pien Tze Huang (PZH) as a Multifunction Medicinal Agent in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM): a review on cellular, molecular and physiological mechanisms

Components Active chemicals identified Biological functions References
Musk Macrocyclic compounds such as musk ketone, steroids such as testosterone, estradiol, cholesterol, a variety of amino acids such as aspartic acid, inorganic salts and others Resist hypoxia and improve cerebral circulation, stimulate cardiac function, increase the amplitude of cardiac contraction and enhance myocardial function, anti-inflammatory effect, stimulate uterus and enhance uterine contraction [20, 24,25,26,27, 29, 37]
Calculus bovis Cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, cholesterol, bilirubin, ergosterol, vitamin D, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, carotenoids, alanine, glycine and other amino acids, as well as mucin, fatty acids and peptides Sedative, anticonvulsant and antipyretic effects, lower blood pressure and reduce heart rate, induce gallbladder contraction, relax the sphincter of biliary duct and promote bile secretion, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic and lipid-lowering effects, hepatoprotective effects [14, 15, 17,18,19,20]
Snake gall Taurocholic acid, taurogoosedeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, free cholic acid and cholesterol Anti-inflammatory, antitussive, bacteriostatic, expectorant, antiasthmatic effects and used in the immune regulation and lowering blood pressure [12, 13]
The root of Panax notoginseng Saponins, flavonoid glycosides, amino acids and other active chemicals Hemostatic effect; shorten bleeding time, lower blood pressure and slow heart rate; reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and oxygen utilization rate, expand cerebrovascular, and enhance cerebrovascular flow; improve humoral immune function; analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activities [4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11]
Pien Tze Huang Notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Re, ginsenosides Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenosides Rd, muscone, bile acids, thymol, sodium taurocholate, taurine Protect against fibrosis, superoxide formation, and lower serum triglyceride; protect from cell death and antivascular spasm; anti-inflammatory effects [7, 20, 31,32,33,34,35,36]