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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients in the training and validation cohort

From: A novel clinical model for predicting malignancy of solitary pulmonary nodules: a multicenter study in chinese population

Characteristic Training cohort External validation cohort
n = (295) n = (101)
Benignancy Malignancy Benignancy Malignancy
n = 106 n = 189 n = 35 n = 66
No.(%) or No.(%) or No.(%) or No.(%) or
Mean ± sd Mean ± sd Mean ± sd Mean ± sd
Age (years) 52.0 ± 11.7 59.7 ± 9.6 51.5 ± 9.7 59.2 ± 9.3
Previous cancer history
 Yes 0 (0.0%) 9 (4.8%) 5 (14.3%) 6 (9.1%)
 No 106 (100.0%) 180 (95.2%) 30 (85.7%) 60 (90.9%)
 Diametera (cm) 1.8 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.6
Spiculation
 Yes 50 (52.8%) 115 (60.8%) 8 (22.9%) 21 (31.8%)
 No 56 (47.2%) 74 (39.2%) 27 (77.1%) 45 (68.2%)
Calcification
 Yes 8 (7.5%) 3 (1.6%) 1 (2.9%) 3 (4.5%)
 No 98 (92.5%) 186 (98.4%) 34 (97.1%) 63 (95.5%)
Pleural stretch
 Yes 24 (22.6%) 61 (32.3%) 6 (17.1%) 24 (36.4%)
 No 82 (77.4%) 128 (67.7%) 29 (82.9%) 119 (63.6%)
VC (L) 3.6 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.6
FEV1 (L) 2.9 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.5
DLCO (mmol/min/kpa) 5.6 ± 3.0 6.1 ± 2.8 7.0 ± 1.4 6.0 ± 1.1
CEA (ng/mL) 2.5 ± 1.9 5.2 ± 8.3 2.1 ± 1.6 5.5 ± 17.3
NSE (ng/mL) 12.5 ± 3.8 13.4 ± 3.9 13.1 ± 4.0 13.8 ± 4.0
  1. a: The maximum diameter of SPNs;
  2. Abbreviations: sd: standard deviation; VC: vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; DLCO: diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide; CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen; NSE: neuron-specific enolase