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Table 2 Strategies toward inhibition of angiogenesis to treat malignancies

From: Mesenchymal stem cells and cancer therapy: insights into targeting the tumour vasculature

Strategy Mechanism Therapeutic References
Exosomal miRNAs Exosomes can regulate tumor cell angiogenesis, metastasis and proliferation by controlling a number of cellular pathways Exosomes have supporting or suppressing impact tumor development [47, 48]
Inhibition of VEGF Suppression of progression and growth of ECs Bevacizumab, a VEGF neutralizing mAb
Soluble receptor of VEGF, VEGF-TrapR1R2
[78]
[81]
Inhibition of signal transduction by targeting receptor tyrosine kinases Repression of receptor tyrosine kinases (2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethylquinoxaline-HCl and (E)-3-(3,5-Diisopropyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-[(3-phenyl-n-propyl) aminocarbonyl] acryl-onitrile) [97]
MSC therapy Regulation of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic compounds MSCs-based delivery of endostatin [103]
  1. VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, ECs endothelial cell, mAb monoclonal antibody, MSC mesenchymal stem cells