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Table 2 Melatonin acts as an antioxidant in cancer models

From: An updated review of mechanistic potentials of melatonin against cancer: pivotal roles in angiogenesis, apoptosis, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress

Cancer Melatonin dose/concentration Key findings Model Cell line/animal Refs.
Breast cancer 1 μM
5, 10, 50 mg/kg
Limited paclitaxel-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and protected against paclitaxel-mediated neuropathic pain In vitro, in vivo MCF-7
Male and female Sprague Dawley rats
Neuroblastoma 10 μM Reduced oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity In vitro SH-SY5Y [199]
Breast cancer 0.3 mM Supported doxorubicin effects by apoptosis and TRPV1activation, and through mediating cancer cell death In vitro MCF-7 [200]
Cervical cancer 1 mM Enhanced cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis In vitro HeLa [163]
Lung cancer 1 nm, 1 μm, 1 mm Exerted immunomodulatory effects In vitro SK‐LU‐1 [201]
Pancreatic cancer 26.8 mg capecitabine and melatonin provided an amelioration in antioxidant status and synergistic antitumoral effects In vivo Male Syrian hamsters [202]
Leukemia 1 mM Protected healthy cells from chemotherapy-mediated ROS production and induced tumor cell death In vitro HL-60 [180]
Hepatocellular carcinoma 1, 100 μM The responses of angiogenic chemokine genes to melatonin were determined by the characteristics of cancer cells In vitro HCC24/KMUH, [203]
Pancreatic cancer 53.76 mg Exerted more potent beneficial effects than celecoxib on the decrease in tumor nodules, oxidative stress and death In vivo Male Syrian hamsters [204]
Breast cancer 2.5 mg/kg Antioxidant effects In vivo Female Sprague Dawley rats [205]
Pancreatic cancer 26.88, 53.76 mg Decreased oxidative damage and cancer nodules mediated by BOP in the pancreas In vivo Male Syrian hamsters [206]
Cervical cancer 10–1000 μM This study showed melatonin effects on radiotherapy is dose-dependent In vitro HeLa [207]
Hepatocellular carcinoma 20 mg/kg Fostered the survival and therapeutic potential of MSCs in HCC, by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as apoptosis induction In vivo Adult female rats [120]
Cervical cancer 10 μM Enhanced TNF-α-mediated cervical cancer cells mitochondrial apoptosis In vitro HeLa [14]
Bladder cancer 1 mM
100 mg/kg
Inhibited the growth, migration, and invasion of cancer cells In vivo, in vitro HT1197, HT1376, T24, RT4
Male C57B/L6 mice
Lung cancer 0.25–2.5 mM Enhanced palladium-nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis In vitro A549, H1299 [209]
Lymphoma, cervical cancer, hepatoblastoma, gastric cancer, breast, colon and lung adenocarcinoma, 0–2 mM Sensitizees shikonin-mediated cancer cell death induced by oxidative stress In vitro U937, HeLa, Hep-G2, AGS, MCF-7, SW480, A549 [210]