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Table 3 The comparison of morphological and molecular characteristics of Caco-2 and HT-29-derived spheroids

From: Morphological and molecular characteristics of spheroid formation in HT-29 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cell lines

Characteristic Cell type
Caco-2 HT-29
Sphere formation method Free floating (suspension) culture Hanging drop method
Complexity of setup Simple (spontaneous formation) Moderate
Cost and reproducibility Low cost
High reproducibility
Low cost
High reproducibility
Time consuming and extensive handling necessary
Spheroid formation rate (spheroidization time) 3 days 4 days
Spheroid structure maintenance Moderate (stable for 5 days) High (stable up to 12 days)
Morphological characteristics Round-shape, hollow structures with bubble like structures Round-shape, smooth surface and compact morphology
Secondary sphere formation ability Yes Yes
Spheroid size (average) Medium (66.9 ± 14.88 µm) Large (82.52 ± 22.56 µm)
CSC enrichment capacity Yes Yes
Up-regulated stemness genes SOX2, C-MYC, KLF4 SOX2, C-MYC, OCT4, NANOG
CSCs surface markers up-regulation +  +  + 
MDR genes up-regulation No Yes
(ABCB1 and ABCG2)
Up-regulated EMT genes SNAIL1, E-cadherin, Vimentin TWIST1, SNAIL1, ZEB1, E-cadherin