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Table 1 Some of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in preventive and therapeutic indications of chrysin

From: Emerging cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying anticancer indications of chrysin

Health effect Mechanisms Refs.
Breast cancer Antiproliferative effect [79]
Breast cancer Downregulated cyclin D1 and hTERT [78]
Breast cancer Stem cell Inhibited EGFR [84]
Breast cancer Apoptosis [85]
Breast cancer Apoptosis [80]
Breast cancer Inhibited angiogenesis, alleviated VEGF expression, Suppressed metastatic growth due to alleviation of activation of STAT3 and hypoxic survival [30]
Breast cancer Inhibited of HDAC8 enzymatic activity [213]
Breast cancer modulated phase I and phase II enzymes [214]
Gastric cancer Altered microRNAs expression [94]
Gastric cancer Blocked AP-1 and suppressed early growth response-1 [98, 99]
Buccal pouch carcinoma mitigated phase-I enzymes (Cyt b5 and Cyt p 450) and increased phase-II enzymes (GSH, GST, GR, and DTD) [215]
Colon cancer Arrested G2/M phase of cell cycle [112]
Colorectal cancer Inhibited cell proliferation, improved antioxidant mineral levels, reduced nitrosative stress [216]
Colon cancer Modulated cryptal cell proliferation activity inhibited apoptosis [217]
Hepatocellular carcinoma Overexpressed hexokinase-2 [129]
Hepatocellular carcinoma attenuated NF-kB p65 levels and COX-2 expression, reduced Bax, Bcl-xL, β-arrestin-2, caspase-3, and p53 regarding apoptosis [136]
Hepatocellular carcinoma Attenuated the canonical Wnt and NF-kB, induced apoptosis [140]
Liver cancer Downregulated the β-catenin expression [218]
Renal carcinoma Ameliorated oxidative stress, hyperproliferation, and inflammation through NF-kB pathway [143]
Skin cancer Attenuated the MSK1/histone H3 signaling [219]
Skin cancer Inhibited tumor growth and neoplastic transformation by targeting CDK2 and CDK4 [220]
Melanoma mitigated the TERT, MMP-2, and MMP-9 genes levels, ameliorated genes expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 [192]
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma Induced apoptosis by activating Notch1 signaling related to PARP cleavage [180]
Prostate cancer Inhibited expression of HIF-1α via Akt signaling pathway and abrogated VEGF expression [153]
Prostate cancer Inhibited DNA methyltransferases [221]
Leukemia Enhanced populations of T-and B cells (CD-3, CD-19, and Mac-3), Promoted macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell cytotoxicity [202]
Leukemia reduced cell viability and induced DNA fragmentation regarding apoptotic cell death [222]
Leukemia Induced apoptosis in Bcl-2 overexpressing associated with PLC-ϒ1 degradation, caspase-3 activation, XIAP downregulation, and the Akt inactivation [205, 223]
Leukemia attenuated SCF/c-Kit signaling by abrogation of PI3K pathway [204]
Cervical cancer inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis [49]
Cervical cancer induced p38 and NF-kB/p65 activation [224]
Cervical cancer Increased caspases-3 and -9, Bax, and cleaved-PARP expression, caused arrest in G2 phase of cell cycle [22]
Cervical and ovarian cancer Antioxidant and anticancer [54]
Ovarian cancer Antioxidant and anticancer [225]
NSCLC Inhibited IL-6-induced AKR1C1/1C2 overexpression [176]
Glioma Antiproliferative and apoptotic activity [194]
Glioma Increased accumulation of arsenic [226]
Ehrlich ascites Enhanced functional activity of macrophages [212]