Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of RFX1 targets showing the pleiotropic nature of the RFX1 transcription factor

From: RFX1: a promising therapeutic arsenal against cancer

Target gene/Protein Target gene/Protein function RFX1 mediated regulation Outcome Refs.
Id2 Repression of helix-loop-helix transcription factors Rapid increase in Id2 expression upon growth serum stimulation in the NIH3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast cell line [1]
HBV gene Viral replication Induces HBV gene enhancer activity, especially in liver [36]
MHC class II genes Antigen presentation; Adaptive immunity; Self-tolerance   [11, 12]
ITGA6 Testis cord development Critical for proper spermatogenesis in mouse [46]
MCP1 Monocyte and basophil chemotactic RFX1 regulated MCP1 is a potential therapeutic strategy for CAD management [68]
CD70 CD27 ligand; Co-stimulatory signaling RFX1 increased H3K9 tri-methylation [153]
ITGAL / CD11a Cell adhesion; Co-stimulatory signaling RFX1 increased H3K9 tri-methylation [153]
TLR4 Activation of innate immune system RFX1 can regulate innate immunity response and is a potential target for CAD management [14]
FGF1 Cell proliferation; Neurogenesis RFX1 disrupts senescence of glioblastoma stem cells by targeting FGF1 [7]
TGF-β2 Wide variety of roles from cell proliferation, motility, differentiation and apoptosis RFX1 suppresses TGFβ2-ERK signaling pathway and resultant cell proliferation in neuroblastoma cell lines [139]
COL1A1 Type I collagen fiber RFX1 binds to methylated COL1A1 near transcription start site [154]
COL1A2 Type I collagen fiber RFX1/ MDBP complex binds to the methylated first exon of COL1A2 promoter and recruits HDAC1 and mSin3 enzymes [64, 154, 155]
CDX2 Intestinal cell growth and differentiation Rfx1 downregulation coupled with CDX2 overexpression is key in adenocarcinoma tumor progression [3]
c-Abl Signal transducer; Proto-oncogene RFX1 directly interacts and potentiates c-Abl kinase activity [56]
CD44 Cell surface receptor RFX1 prevents metastasis of multiple glioblastoma cell lines [2]
IL-17A Pro-inflammatory cytokine RFX1 increased H3K9 tri-methylation and decreased H3 acetylation at IL17A promoter [15]
RFX1 Context dependent transcription factor Auto-repression of RFX1 in response to DNA damage [86]
c-Myc DNA binding protein; Proto-oncogene; RFX1 mediated c-Myc downregulation was observed in differentiated HL60 cell line human leukemia cell line [9]
PCNA Involved in DNA replication and repair pathways   [156, 157]
IL5RA Receptor for IL5   [16]
PTPN6/SHP1 Cell signaling, differentiation RFX1/AP4 mediated SHP-1 regulation reduced MCF-7 cell proliferation [81]
MCL1 Anti-apoptotic factor RFX1/SHP-1/STAT3/MCL1 axis of autophagy in HCC cells [10]
EAAT3 Glutamate uptake RFX1 upregulates EAAT3 in rat neurons and could have treatment applications in neurological disorders [158]
SPATA4 Spermatogenesis; Modulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in many cells Downregulate Sertoli cell proliferation [159]
PNRC Nuclear receptor co-activator   [160]
rpL30 Ribosomal protein   [139]
DNAAF4/DYX1C1 Neuronal migration RFX1 regulates one of the most replicated candidate genes of Ciliary dyslexia [161]
DCDC2 Neuronal migration RFX1 regulates one of the most replicated candidate genes of Ciliary dyslexia [161]
  1. : Down regulation
  2. : Upregulation
  3. Id2 inhibitor of DNA binding 2, HBV human hepatitis B virus enhancer I, ITGA6 integrin alpha-6, MCP1 Monocyte chemoattractant protein, CAD Coronary artery disease, CD70 Cluster of Differentiation 70, ITGAL / CD11a integrin subunit alpha L, FGF1 fibroblast growth factor 1, COL1A Collagen α1(I) Gene, COL1A2 collagen type I alpha 2, CDX2 Caudal type homeobox 2, PTPN6/SHP1 protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6/ Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1, PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen, EAAT3 Excitatory amino acid transporter type 3, SPATA4 spermatogenesis associated 4, PNRC Proline-rich Nuclear Receptor Coactivator, rpL30 ribosomal protein L30, DNAAF4/ DYX1C1 dynein axonemal assembly factor 4/ dyslexia 1 candidate 1 gene, DCDC2 doublecortin domain-containing 2 gene