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Table 1 Indirect cell communication mediated by metabolites

From: Using dynamic cell communication improves treatment strategies of breast cancer

Signal source Communication molecules Signal-receiving cells Functions References
Circulation alpha-Ketoglutarate breast cancer cells Stabilize HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) and decrease HIF-1α, ultimately suppressing breast cancer metastasis [61]
Circulation Arachidonic acid Breast cancer cells Stimulate the ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways within endothelial cells to promote angiogenesis and metastasis in breast cancer [62]
Circulation Lactate Breast cancer cells Activate G protein-coupled receptor 132 (Gpr132) on macrophages to stimulate macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype and promote the adhesion, metastasis and invasion of breast cancer cells [63]
Fibroblast Kynurenine Breast cancer cells FORM complex with Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to degrade E-cadherin and increase breast cancer invasiveness [108]
Circulation Hydroxycholesterol Breast cancer cells Contacts estrogen receptor and liver X receptor to promote the growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells [109]
Circulation 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione Breast cancer cells Increases cell proliferation and detachment [110]
  Lysophosphatidic acid Breast cancer cells Contacts lysophosphatidic acid receptor to contribute to the progression of breast cancer [111]
Circulation 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) Breast cancer cells Aborgates tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxin (TCDD)-induced inflammation and tumorigenesis [112]