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Table 1 Epidemiological data linking diabetes with breast cancer

From: The prognostic outcome of ‘type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer’ association pivots on hypoxia-hyperglycemia axis

Sr. No. Study name Country Study type Population/Sample size Study period Age group Characteristic findings Refs
1 Nurse Health Study USA Follow up 116,488 Nurses 1976–1988 30–55 Women with T2DM had a modestly elevated breast cancer incidence [54]
2 Long Island
Breast Cancer Study Project
USA Population based study using data from case–control & Follow up studies 1508 1996–1997 30 +  Diabetes associated increased breast cancer incidence in older and non-white women due to all reasons [55]
3 SEER-Medicare based study   Observational Cohort 2418 2001–2007  > 80
Mean age: 77.8
Diabetes associated with advanced cancer stage and increased mortality [56]
4 Meta-analysis of diabetes mellitus and risk of breast cancer Various (From North America, Europe & Asia) Meta-analysis of case–control &cohort studies 20 Studies (30,568 cases) 1966–2007 20–95 20% increased breast cancer risk in women with diabetes [17]
5 Retrospective cohort study in China China Retrospective Cohort 36 cases 2002–2008 - Increased risk of developing breast cancer in T2DM patients [57]
6 Diabetes increases risk of breast cancer Various Meta-analysis of case–control & cohort studies 43 studies (422,631 cases) Oldest Study from 1990
Latest from 2012
Varied T2DM increases the risk of breast cancer in women [58]
7 Random effects model based meta-analysis Various (From North America, Europe & Asia) Meta-analysis 39 independent observational studies (58,690 cases) Oldest Study from 1993
Latest from 2011
All ages 27% Increased risk for breast cancer in women with T2DM (reduced to 16% after adjustment for BMI) [18]
8 T2DM as a risk factor for female breast cancer Pakistan Case–control study 400 patients 2014–15   17.69% breast cancer patients reported diabetes [59]
  1. Data represented here has been retrieved from 7 published works including 3 meta-analyses and other population based studies