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Table 1 Overview of FAO roles in cancer therapy

From: Fatty acid oxidation: driver of lymph node metastasis

FAO targeting drug Clinical application Cancer type Mechanism of action References
Metformin Medicine for type 2 diabetes Breast cancer Inhibiting FAO at clinical doses [117]
Etomoxir Retired from phase II clinical trial for diabetes and heart failures Bladder cancer Suppressing tumor progression and inducing cell cycle arrest via PPARγ-mediated pathway [118]
Malignant glioma Targeting FAO to reduce energy production and cellular proliferation in glioma cells [119]
Leukemia Decreasing leukemia cells proliferation and sensitizing leukemia cells to apoptosis induced by ABT-737 and Nutlin 3a [120]
Peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer Inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblast FAO to decline colorectal cancer metastasis [121]
Epithelial-derived high-grade serous ovarian cancer Targeting FAO to promote anoikis and inhibit ovarian cancer progression [37]
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Targeting FAO to sensitize cancer to radiation therapy [115]
Ranolazine Medicine for angina pectoris in Europe and United States Leukemia Decreasing leukemia cells proliferation and sensitizing leukemia cells to apoptosis induced by ABT-737 and Nutlin 3a [120]
Perhexiline Medicine for angina pectoris in Australia and Asia Leukemia Targeting CPT to eliminate chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in stromal microenvironment [122]