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Fig. 1 | Cancer Cell International

Fig. 1

From: Current understanding of ferroptosis in the progression and treatment of pancreatic cancer

Fig. 1

Mechanisms regulating ferroptosis. Specific mechanisms regulating ferroptosis, including various inducers and inhibitors. System Xc transports extracellular Cys2 into the cell and transports intracellular Glu outside the cell, and then Cys2 is used to synthesize GSH. GPX4 combines with PUFA-OH to reduce reactive oxygen species generation and ultimately inhibit lipid peroxidation. Extracellular Fe3+ binds to the iron transporter and enters the cell through TFR1 on the cell membrane. Next, Fe3+ is reduced to Fe2+ and combined with reactive oxygen species to participate in lipid peroxidation, and finally induce ferroptosis. indicates inhibition, and indicates induction, System Xc a glutamate/cystine antiporter; Shmt1/2, serine hydroxymethyltransferase ½, GSS glutathione synthase, GSH glutathione, GSSH glutathione persulfide, GPX4 glutathione peroxidase 4, GSR glutathione reductase, ALOX5 arachidonate lipoxygenase 5, NCOA4 nuclear receptor co-activator 4, SLC7A11 solute carrier family 7 member 11, SLC3A2 solute carrier family 3 member 2, SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 member 5, TFR1 transferrin receptor 1, VDAC2/3 voltage-dependent anion channel 2/3, ATG5/7 autophagy-related protein 5/7, Nrf2 nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, NFE2L2 nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2, ATF4 activating transcription factor 4, lncRNA long noncoding RNAs, miRNA microRNA, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, BSO buthionine sulfoximine, RRM2 ribonucleotide reductase M2, FBW7 F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7, NR4A1 nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1, SCD1 stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, RSL3 Ras-selective lethal 3, FANCD2 Fanconi anaemia complementation group D2, FINO2 1,2-dioxolane, ML162 (S)-enantiomer, DPI diphenylene iodonium, LONP1 mitochondrial Lon protease 1, CoQ10 coenzyme Q10, ESCRT endosomal sorting complex required for transport, AIFM2 apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondria-associated 2

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