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Table 1 Summary of studies on the difference between ferroptosis and other types of cell death

From: Current understanding of ferroptosis in the progression and treatment of pancreatic cancer

Cell death Ferroptosis Apoptosis Necroptosis Pyroptosis Autophagy Necrosis
Characteristic Programmed Programmed Programmed Programmed Programmed Non programmed
Morphological features Mitochondrial atrophy, increased mitochondrial membrane density and outer mitochondrial membrane rupture Cell shrinkage, intact cell membrane and organelle structure, nuclear break Cell volume increases and deformation, cell membrane rupture, and organelle deformation Cell volume increase, cell membrane rupture, chromatin shrinkage Vacuoles production, intact cell membrane, autophagosomes and phagocytic organelle formation Cell swelling, cell membrane rupture, deformation or swelling of organelles
Biochemical features Inhibition of system Xc-/GSH/GPX4 axis, iron accumulation, ROS production and lipid peroxidation Oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation Phosphorylated MLKL translocates to the inside of the cell membrane and destroys the integrity of the cell membrane Activation of caspase and gasdermin and release of pro-inflammatory factors Autophagosome formation and increased lysosome activity Reduced ATP levels Activation of RIP1, RIP3, PARP1
Regulatory pathways system Xc-/GSH/GPX4 axis, ATG5/7-NCOA4 pathway, Keap1-NRF2 pathway, P53-SAT1-ALOX15 pathway Caspase, P53, Bcl-2 mediated signalling pathway, death receptor pathway, mitochondrial pathway, endoplasmic reticulum pathway TNF-α/TNFR1/RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL caspase-1, IL-18, IL-1β, GSDMD mTOR, RAS, MAPK-ERK-BCL2 signalling pathway RIP1/RIP3-MLKL related signalling pathways, PKC/MAPK/AP-1 related signalling pathway, ROS signalling pathway,
Inducers Erastin, P53, RSL3, ATF4, NEDD4L FASL, DCC, UNC5B TNF-α, RIP3, RIP1, LPS, DNA damage, hypoxia ZnO—NPs, Ivermectin Valproate, carbamazepine, PINK1/2, rapamycin, arsenic trioxide, ULK1 TNF-α
strong acid, strong alkali, toxic substance, high heat, radiation, PAMPS
Inhibitors BSO, NFE2L2, RRM2, CA-1 c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP, ML-IAP/Livin, hILP, NAIP, Z-VADFMK caspase-8, TBK1, IKKε, RARγ, Necrostatin-1 Necrosulfonami-de ATG4B, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, Spautin-1, Bafilomycin A1, hydroxychloroquine Nec-1, Kongensin-A, NSA,