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Table 2 Association between biological therapy and risk of NMSC in subgroup meta-analyses

From: Risk of non-melanoma skin cancer with biological therapy in common inflammatory diseases: a systemic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup No. of studies RR(95% CI) I2 value (%) P value
All studies 12 1.25 (1.14,1.37) 37.8 0.022
Type of NMSC     
Squamous cell skin cancer 4 1.34 (1.10,1.63) 44.2 0.096
Basal cell skin cancer 3 1.16 (1.02,1.32) 0.0 0.893
Type of biologic therapy
 TNFI 10 1.23 (1.10,1.37) 45.2 0.017
 Abatacept 3 2.00 (1.27,3.15) 0.0 0.689
 Rituximab 2 1.02 (0.67,1.56) 0.0 0.754
Treatment years
 Less than 2 years 2 1.04 (0.79,1.37) 0.0 0.633
 More than 2 years 6 1.26 (1.17,1.37) 19.9 0.248
Study quality
 NOS score = 7 3 1.16 (1.00,1.35) 0.4 0.426
 NOS score = 8 9 1.29 (1.15,1.44) 42.8 0.028
Sample size
 < 10,000 12 1.26 (1.12,1.42) 45.0 0.009
 ≥ 10,000 4 1.21 (1.07,1.36) 0.0 0.667
  1. NMSC: non-melanoma skin cancer; TNFIs: tumor necrosis factor inhibitors; NOS: Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale; RR: relative risk; CI: confidence interval