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Fig. 1 | Cancer Cell International

Fig. 1

From: Interaction between non-coding RNAs, mRNAs and G-quadruplexes

Fig. 1

 A schematic illustration of the impacts of G-quadruplex ligands on tumorigenesis. Accumulating evidence has illustrated that formation and/or stabilization of G4 structures could play a crucial role as a remedial procedure against cancer cells. Three major remedial methods have been detected recently [23, 24]. Owing to the ligand and cell type G-quadruplex stabilization could result in alterations in A interfering with telomere maintenance; G4 formation/stabilization at telomeres was applied as a potential therapeutic tool to suppress telomerase function [25,26,27], B downregulation of oncogenes expression; since most promoters of oncogenes harbor more G4 motifs compared with that of regulatory or tumor suppressor genes, G4 formation could act as a key factor attenuating gene expression of oncogenes [28, 29], C activating apoptosis; under particular situations, misregulated G4 structures can cause genome instability, leading to transformation within DNA replication and can trigger DNA damage and recombination events. Increased genome instability results in inducing apoptosis and autophagy in tumor cells [20, 30, 31]

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