Vitamin K3 (VK3) generates anion superoxide radicals (O
.-), hydrogen peroxide (H
), mitochondrial depolarization and apoptotic morphology in Jurkat cells. Jurkat cells (1 × 106 cells/mL) were incubated with (10 μM) VK3 at different interval as indicated below. (A) Representative light photomicrography showing NBT+ stained blue-purple precipitate cells (i.e. formazan, arrows) and NBT- stained cells (i.e. translucent cells, arrowheads) indicative of positive and negative (O2.-) production, respectively from Jurkat cells incubated with VK3 for 3 h at 37 °C. Insets: Magnification of four NBT+ cells showing cytoplasmic blue-purple precipitate from Jurkat cells incubated with VK3 for 24 h at 37 °C. (B) Representative fluorescent photomicrography (ex. 450-490 nm, em. 515 nm) illustrating DCF+ (green bright light, arrowheads) and DCF- (dark round-shape, asterisks) fluorescent stained cells indicative of positive and negative H2O2 production, respectively. (C) Representative fluorescent photomicrography (ex. 450-490 nm, em. 515 nm) illustrating DiOC6(3)+ green fluorescent (arrowheads) stained cells indicative of high-polarized and low-polarized mitochondria and DiOC6(3)- (non-fluorescent, asterisks) stained cells indicative of depolarized mitochondria. (D) Representative fluorescent photomicrography (ex. 450-490 nm, em. 515 nm) showing typical nuclear apoptotic morphology such as highly condensed chromatin (asterisks) and nuclear fragmentation (arrowheads) from Jurkat cells treated with (10 μM) VK3. Magnification A: 1000x (inset 1200x); B: 600x; C: 800x; D: 1000x.