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Table 3 Effect of the EMF treatments on the extent of vascular (CD31 positive) necrotic and viable tissue in tumors taken from mice sacrificed 20 days after tumor implantation

From: Optimization of a therapeutic electromagnetic field (EMF) to retard breast cancer tumor growth and vascularity

Group N Total tumor volume (mm3) Viable tumor volume (mm3) Necrotic tumor volume (mm3) Necrotic fraction % CD 31 positive
1 11 5084.7 ± 1257 3776.0 ± 884.4 1308.7 ± 425.9 0.25 ± 0.03 7.50 ± 2.4
2 8 4442.3 ± 884.6 3282.2 ± 691.1 1160.1 ± 268.6 0.26 ± 0.04 6.90 ± 2.0
3 6 4077.5 ± 579.8 2796.4 ± 392.1 1281.1 ± 225.0 0.31 ± 0.03 4.46 ± 1.1
4 9 3598.9 ± 964.2 2475.0 ± 691.7 1123.9 ± 278.3 0.31 ± 0.02 4.37 ± 0.7
5 9 4330.8 ± 295.4 2818.1 ± 614.4 1512.7 ± 304.6 0.35 ± 0.03 3.27 ± 0.8
6 7 3799.0 ± 480.4 2221.8 ± 753.9 1577.2 ± 663.2 0.41 ± 0.07 2.24 ± 1.1
7 8 3958.8 ± 244.6 2534.7 ± 497.8 1424.1 ± 255.7 0.36 ± 0.02 2.99 ± 0.6
8 9 3678.1 ± 599.3 2450.8 ± 397.6 1227.3 ± 290.9 0.33 ± 0.05 3.96 ± 1.5
  1. Analysis of variance followed by a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test showed the following significant difference (p < 0.05) between the group means:
  2. Volume of viable tumor – the viable tumor volume of group 1 was significantly greater than the viable tumor volume of groups 3 to 8; the viable tumor volume of group 2 was significantly greater than the viable tumor volume of group 6.
  3. Necrotic fraction – the necrotic fractions of groups 1 and 2 were significantly less than the necrotic fractions of groups 3 and 8; the necrotic fraction of group 6 was significantly greater than the necrotic fraction of all other groups.
  4. % CD 31 positive – the CD 31 positive areas (volume fraction) of groups 1 and 2 were significantly greater than the CD 31 positive area of groups 3 to 8; the CD 31 positive areas of groups 3 and 4 were significantly greater than the CD 31 positive area of group 6.
  5. Total tumor volume – the total tumor volume of group 1 was significantly greater than the total tumor mass of all other groups.
  6. All values are mean ± SD.