induces Vim (vimentin) but reduces Cdh1 (E-cadherin) mRNA expression. Sub-confluent cultures were pretreated with serum-free medium at pH 7.4 and incubated in serum-free medium at pH 6.8 and 7.4. After 24 h, total RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, and amplified by qPCR with specific primer pairs. Data are shown as relative expression compared with their levels in LLCm1 cells cultured at pH 7.4. Representative results were shown from three independent experiments. *P < 0.05; NS, not significant.